Electrophysiological recording and stimulation of neuron activities are important for us to understand the function and dysfunction of the nervous system. To record/stimulate neuron activities as voltage fluctuation extracellularly, microelectrode array (MEA) implants are a promising tool to provide high temporal and spatial resolution for neuroscience studies and medical treatments. The design configuration and recording capabilities of the MEAs have evolved dramatically since their invention and manufacturing process development has been a key driving force for such advancement. Over the past decade, since the White House Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative launched in 2013, advanced manufacturing processes have enabled advanced MEAs with increased channel count and density, access to more brain areas, more reliable chronic performance, as well as minimal invasiveness and tissue reaction. In this state-of-the-art review paper, three major types of electrophysiological recording MEAs widely used nowadays, namely, microwire-based, silicon-based, and flexible MEAs are introduced and discussed. Conventional design and manufacturing processes and materials used for each type are elaborated, followed by a review of further development and recent advances in manufacturing technologies and the enabling new designs and capabilities. The review concludes with a discussion on potential future directions of manufacturing process development to enable the long-term goal of large-scale high-density brain-wide chronic recordings in freely moving animals.