Abstract

Incorporation of contextual factors into design processes is important for successful engineering design outcomes. Through document analysis and semi-structured interviews, we investigated the types of contextual factors incorporated by novice engineering designers and their approaches during design processes. Our findings demonstrated that participants primarily considered technical and institutional contextual factors across all design stages, informed largely by contextual observations and interviews with stakeholders. Socio-political contextual factors were less frequently considered. We also found that a broader set of contextual factors were incorporated when projects were set in unfamiliar contexts. And, contextual factors that could be easily quantified were more readily applied to design decisions. We suggest that there are opportunities for more intentional approaches to incorporating contextual factors throughout design processes.

References

1.
Dieter
,
G. E.
, and
Schmidt
,
L. C.
,
2009
,
Engineering Design
,
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
,
Boston, MA
.
2.
Dym
,
C. L.
,
Agogino
,
A. M.
,
Eris
,
O.
,
Frey
,
D. D.
, and
Leifer
,
L. J.
,
2005
, “
Engineering Design Thinking, Teaching, and Learning
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
94
(
1
), pp.
103
120
.
3.
Mabogunje
,
A.
,
Sonalkar
,
N.
, and
Leifer
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Design Thinking: A New Foundational Science for Engineering
,”
Int. J. Eng. Educ.
,
32
(
3
), pp.
1540
1556
.
4.
Aranda-Jan
,
C. B.
,
Jagtap
,
S.
, and
Moultrie
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Towards a Framework for Holistic Contextual Design for Low-Resource Settings
,”
Int. J. Des.
,
10
(
3
), p.
21
.
5.
Jagtap
,
S.
,
2019
, “
Design and Poverty: A Review of Contexts, Roles of Poor People, and Methods
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
30
(
1
), pp.
41
62
.
6.
Khadilkar
,
P.
,
Somasekhar
,
H. I.
, and
Mani
,
M.
,
2019
, “Technologies to Support the Technologies,”
Rural Technology Development and Delivery
,
S. K.
Saha
, and
M. R.
Ravi
, eds.,
Springer
,
Singapore
, pp.
213
221
.
7.
Wood
,
A. E.
, and
Mattson
,
C. A.
,
2016
, “
Design for the Developing World: Common Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
138
(
3
), p.
031101
.
8.
Burleson
,
G.
, and
Sharp
,
K.
,
2018
, “
Comparative Study of Maintenance Planning and Failure Modes of Drinking Water Projects: Case Studies From Eastern Uganda
,”
2018 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC)
,
San Jose, CA
,
Oct. 18–21
, IEEE, pp.
1
6
.
9.
Raessler
,
M.
,
2018
, “
The Arsenic Contamination of Drinking and Groundwaters in Bangladesh: Featuring Biogeochemical Aspects and Implications on Public Health
,”
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
,
75
(
1
), pp.
1
7
.
10.
Ames
,
M. G.
,
2019
,
The Charisma Machine: The Life, Death, and Legacy of One Laptop per Child
,
MIT Press
,
Cambridge, MA
.
11.
Eteläpelto
,
A.
,
2000
, “
Contextual and Strategic Knowledge in the Acquisition of Design Expertise
,”
Learn. Instr.
,
10
(
2
), pp.
113
136
.
12.
Mazzurco
,
A.
, and
Daniel
,
S.
,
2020
, “
Socio-Technical Thinking of Students and Practitioners in the Context of Humanitarian Engineering
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
109
(
2
), pp.
243
261
.
13.
Dugan
,
K. E.
,
Mosyjowski
,
E. A.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
, and
Lattuca
,
L. R.
,
2021
, “
Systems Thinking Assessments in Engineering: A Systematic Literature Review
,”
Syst. Res. Behav. Sci.
,
39
(
4
), pp.
840
866
.
14.
Mosyjowski
,
E. A.
,
von Bischhoffshausen
,
J. E.
,
Lattuca
,
L. R.
, and
Daly
,
S. R.
,
2020
, “
Student and Practitioner Approaches to Systems Thinking: Integrating Technical and Contextual Considerations
,”
Proceedings of the 2020 American Society of Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition
,
Virtual
,
June 22–26
.
15.
Johnson
,
K.
,
Leydens
,
J.
,
Erickson
,
J.
,
Boll
,
A.
,
Claussen
,
S.
, and
Moskal
,
B.
,
2019
, “
Sociotechnical Habits of Mind: Initial Survey Results and Their Formative Impact on Sociotechnical Teaching and Learning
,”
2019 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition Proceedings, ASEE Conferences
,
Tampa, FL
,
June 16–19
, p.
33275
.
16.
Leydens
,
J. A.
, and
Lucena
,
J. C.
,
2017
,
Engineering Justice: Transforming Engineering Education and Practice
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
17.
Sabet Sarvestani
,
A.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2018
, “
Medical Device Landscape for Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases in Low-Income Countries
,”
Glob. Health
,
14
(
1
), p.
65
.
18.
Sabet Sarvestani
,
A.
,
Coulentianos
,
M.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2021
, “
Defining and Characterizing Task-Shifting Medical Devices
,”
Glob. Health
,
17
(
1
), p.
60
.
19.
Yannou
,
B.
,
Jankovic
,
M.
,
Leroy
,
Y.
, and
Okudan Kremer
,
G. E.
,
2013
, “
Observations From Radical Innovation Projects Considering the Company Context
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
135
(
2
), p.
021005
.
20.
Pakravan
,
M. H.
, and
MacCarty
,
N. A.
,
2020
, “
Design for Clean Technology Adoption: Integration of Usage Context, User Behavior, and Technology Performance in Design
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
142
(
9
), p.
091402
.
21.
Mabey
,
C. S.
,
Mattson
,
C. A.
, and
Dahlin
,
E. C.
,
2021
, “
Assessing Global Needs When Identifying Potential Engineering for Global Development Projects
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
144
(
3
), p.
031402
.
22.
Christensen
,
S. H.
, and
Ernø-Kjølhede
,
E.
,
2012
, “Socio-Technical Integration in Engineering Education: A Never-Ending Story,”
Engineering, Development and Philosophy: American, Chinese and European Perspectives
,
S. H.
Christensen
,
C.
Mitcham
,
B.
Li
, and
Y.
An
, eds.,
Springer Netherlands
,
Dordrecht
, pp.
197
213
.
23.
Neumeyer
,
X.
,
Chen
,
W.
, and
McKenna
,
A. F.
,
2013
, “
Embedding Context in Teaching Engineering Design
,”
Adv. Eng. Educ.
,
3
(
4
), pp.
1
19
.
24.
Ro
,
H. K.
,
Merson
,
D.
,
Lattuca
,
L. R.
, and
Terenzini
,
P. T.
,
2015
, “
Validity of the Contextual Competence Scale for Engineering Students
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
104
(
1
), pp.
35
54
.
25.
Kilgore
,
D.
,
Atman
,
C. J.
,
Yasuhara
,
K.
,
Barker
,
T. J.
, and
Morozov
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Considering Context: A Study of First-Year Engineering Students
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
96
(
4
), pp.
321
334
.
26.
Mohedas
,
I.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2015
, “
Requirements Development: Approaches and Behaviors of Novice Designers
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
137
(
7
), p.
071407
.
27.
Devine-Wright
,
P.
,
Batel
,
S.
,
Aas
,
O.
,
Sovacool
,
B.
,
Labelle
,
M. C.
, and
Ruud
,
A.
,
2017
, “
A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Social Acceptance of Energy Infrastructure: Insights From Energy Storage
,”
Energy Policy
,
107
, pp.
27
31
.
28.
Urmee
,
T.
, and
Gyamfi
,
S.
,
2014
, “
A Review of Improved Cookstove Technologies and Programs
,”
Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.
,
33
, pp.
625
635
.
29.
Uddin
,
S. M. N.
,
Muhandiki
,
V. S.
,
Sakai
,
A.
,
Al Mamun
,
A.
, and
Hridi
,
S. M.
,
2014
, “
Socio-Cultural Acceptance of Appropriate Technology: Identifying and Prioritizing Barriers for Widespread Use of the Urine Diversion Toilets in Rural Muslim Communities of Bangladesh
,”
Technol. Soc.
,
38
, pp.
32
39
.
30.
Mac Mahon
,
J.
, and
Gill
,
L. W.
,
2018
, “
Sustainability of Novel Water Treatment Technologies in Developing Countries: Lessons Learned From Research Trials on a Pilot Continuous Flow Solar Water Disinfection System in Rural Kenya
,”
Dev. Eng.
,
3
, pp.
47
59
.
31.
Toyama
,
K.
,
2015
,
Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology
,
PublicAffairs
,
New York
.
32.
Walther
,
J.
,
Miller
,
S. E.
, and
Sochacka
,
N. W.
,
2017
, “
A Model of Empathy in Engineering as a Core Skill, Practice Orientation, and Professional Way of Being
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
106
(
1
), pp.
123
148
.
33.
Kouprie
,
M.
, and
Visser
,
F. S.
,
2009
, “
A Framework for Empathy in Design: Stepping Into and Out of the User’s Life
,”
J. Eng. Des.
,
20
(
5
), pp.
437
448
.
34.
Kramer
,
J.
,
Agogino
,
A. M.
, and
Roschuni
,
C.
,
2016
, “
Characterizing Competencies for Human-Centered Design
,”
Volume 7: 28th International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology
,
Charlotte, NC
,
Aug. 21–24
, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, p. V007T06A026.
35.
Simonsen
,
J.
, and
Robertson
,
T.
,
2012
,
Routledge International Handbook of Participatory Design
,
Routledge
,
New York
.
36.
Smith
,
R. C.
,
Bossen
,
C.
, and
Kanstrup
,
A. M.
,
2017
, “
Participatory Design in an Era of Participation
,”
CoDesign
,
13
(
2
), pp.
65
69
.
37.
Augstein
,
M.
,
Neumayr
,
T.
,
Pimminger
,
S.
,
Ebner
,
C.
,
Altmann
,
J.
, and
Kurschl
,
W.
,
2018
, “
Contextual Design in Industrial Settings: Experiences and Recommendations
,”
ICEIS 2018 – 20th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
,
2
, pp.
429
440
.
38.
Ventura
,
J.
, and
Bichard
,
J.-A.
,
2017
, “
Design Anthropology or Anthropological Design? Towards ‘Social Design’
,”
Int. J. Des. Creat. Innov.
,
5
(
3–4
), pp.
222
234
.
39.
Hammersley
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Ethnography: Problems and Prospects
,”
Ethnogr. Educ.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
3
14
.
40.
Salvador
,
T.
,
Bell
,
G.
, and
Anderson
,
K.
,
1999
, “
Design Ethnography
,”
Des. Manag. J.
,
10
(
4
), pp.
35
41
.
41.
Sandhu
,
J. S.
,
Altankhuyag
,
P.
, and
Amarsaikhan
,
D.
,
2007
, “
Serial Hanging Out: Rapid Ethnographic Needs Assessment in Rural Settings
,”
International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
,
Beijing, China
,
July 22–27
, pp.
614
623
.
42.
Mohedas
,
I.
,
Sabet Sarvestani
,
A.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2015
, “
Applying Design Ethnography to Product Evaluation: A Case Example of Medical Device in a Low-Resource Setting
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design
,
Milan, Italy
,
July 27–30
, pp.
401
410
.
43.
Wood
,
A. E.
, and
Mattson
,
C. A.
,
2019
, “
Quantifying the Effects of Various Factors on the Utility of Design Ethnography in the Developing World
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
30
(
3
), pp.
317
338
.
44.
Mitcham
,
C.
, and
Munoz
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Humanitarian Engineering
,”
Synth. Lect. Eng. Technol. Soc.
,
5
(
1
), pp.
1
87
.
45.
Amrose
,
S.
,
Bilton
,
A. M.
, and
Kramer
,
B.
,
2021
, “
The Future of Development Engineering—Our Vision for the Next Generation of Publications in DevEng
,”
Dev. Eng.
,
6
, p.
100059
.
46.
Thomas
,
E.
,
2020
, “What Is Global Engineering?,”
The Global Engineers: Building a Safe and Equitable World Together
,
E.
Thomas
, ed.,
Springer International Publishing
,
Cham
, pp.
1
19
.
47.
Jagtap
,
S.
,
2019
, “
Key Guidelines for Designing Integrated Solutions to Support Development of Marginalised Societies
,”
J. Cleaner Prod.
,
219
, pp.
148
165
.
48.
Janzer
,
C. L.
, and
Weinstein
,
L. S.
,
2014
, “
Social Design and Neocolonialism
,”
Des. Cult.
,
6
(
3
), pp.
327
343
.
49.
Nieusma
,
D.
, and
Riley
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Designs on Development: Engineering, Globalization, and Social Justice
,”
Eng. Stud.
,
2
(
1
), pp.
29
59
.
50.
Lissenden
,
J.
,
Maley
,
S.
, and
Mehta
,
K.
,
2015
, “
An Era of Appropriate Technology: Evolutions, Oversights and Opportunities
,”
J. Humanit. Eng.
,
3
(
1
), pp.
24
35
.
51.
Burleson
,
G.
,
Sienko
,
K. H.
, and
Toyama
,
K.
,
2020
, “
Incorporating Contextual Factors Into a Design Process: An Analysis of Engineering for Global Development Literature
,”
International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Virtual, Online
,
Aug. 17–19
, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, p. V11BT11A009.
52.
Lawson
,
B.
, and
Dorst
,
K.
,
2013
,
Design Expertise
,
Routledge
,
New York
.
53.
Deininger
,
M.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
,
Sienko
,
K. H.
, and
Lee
,
J. C.
,
2017
, “
Novice Designers’ Use of Prototypes in Engineering Design
,”
Des. Stud.
,
51
, pp.
25
65
.
54.
Loweth
,
R. P.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
,
Hortop
,
A.
,
Strehl
,
E. A.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2021
, “
A Comparative Analysis of Information Gathering Meetings Conducted by Novice Design Teams Across Multiple Design Project Stages
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
143
(
9
), p.
092301
.
55.
Rekonen
,
S.
, and
Hassi
,
L.
,
2018
, “
Impediments for Experimentation in Novice Design Teams
,”
Int. J. Des. Creat. Innov.
,
6
(
3–4
), pp.
235
255
.
56.
Tessmer
,
M.
, and
Wedman
,
J.
,
1995
, “
Context-Sensitive Instructional Design Models: A Response to Design Research, Studies, and Criticism
,”
Perform. Improv. Q.
,
8
(
3
), pp.
38
54
.
57.
Atman
,
C.
,
Yasuhara
,
K.
,
Adams
,
R.
,
Barker
,
T.
,
Turns
,
J.
, and
Rhone
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Breadth in Problem Scoping: A Comparison of Freshman and Senior Engineering Students
,”
Int. J. Eng. Educ.
,
24
(
2
), pp.
234
245
.
58.
Mercer
,
K.
,
Weaver
,
K.
, and
Stables-Kennedy
,
A.
,
2019
, “
Understanding Undergraduate Engineering Student Information Access and Needs: Results from a Scoping Review
,”
2019 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition
,
Tampa, FL
,
June 16–19
.
59.
Kolko
,
J.
,
2011
,
Exposing the Magic of Design: A Practitioner's Guide to Methods & Theory of Synthesis
,
Oxford University Press
,
New York
.
60.
Gumienny
,
R.
,
Lindberg
,
T.
, and
Meinel
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Exploring the Synthesis of Information in Design Processes—Opening the Black-Box
,”
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design
,
Copenhagen, Denmark
,
Aug. 15–18
, pp.
446
455
.
61.
Deininger
,
M.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
,
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
Lee
,
J. C.
, and
Kaufmann
,
E. E.
,
2019
, “
Investigating Prototyping Approaches of Ghanaian Novice Designers
,”
Des. Sci.
,
5
(
6
), pp.
1
36
.
62.
Cross
,
N.
,
2004
, “
Expertise in Design: An Overview
,”
Des. Stud.
,
25
(
5
), pp.
427
441
.
63.
Deininger
,
M.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
,
Lee
,
J. C.
,
Seifert
,
C. M.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2019
, “
Prototyping for Context: Exploring Stakeholder Feedback Based on Prototype Type, Stakeholder Group and Question Type
,”
Res. Eng. Des.
,
30
(
4
), pp.
453
471
.
64.
Atman
,
C. J.
,
Adams
,
R. S.
,
Cardella
,
M. E.
,
Turns
,
J.
,
Mosborg
,
S.
, and
Saleem
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Engineering Design Processes: A Comparison of Students and Expert Practitioners
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
96
(
4
), pp.
359
379
.
65.
Björklund
,
T. A.
,
2013
, “
Initial Mental Representations of Design Problems: Differences Between Experts and Novices
,”
Des. Stud.
,
34
(
2
), pp.
135
160
.
66.
Tracy
,
S. J.
,
2010
, “
Qualitative Quality: Eight ‘Big-Tent’ Criteria for Excellent Qualitative Research
,”
Qual. Inq.
,
16
(
10
), pp.
837
851
.
67.
Morkos
,
B.
,
Joshi
,
S.
, and
Summers
,
J. D.
,
2019
, “
Investigating the Impact of Requirements Elicitation and Evolution on Course Performance in a Pre-Capstone Design Course
,”
J. Eng. Des.
,
30
(
4–5
), pp.
155
179
.
68.
Mohedas
,
I.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2014
, “
Design Ethnography in Capstone Design: Investigating Student Use and Perceptions
,”
Int. J. Eng. Educ.
,
30
(
4
), pp.
888
900
.
69.
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
Young
,
M. R.
,
Effah Kaufmann
,
E.
,
Obed
,
S.
,
Danso
,
K. A.
,
Opare-Addo
,
H. S.
,
Odoi
,
A. T.
,
Turpin
,
C. A.
, and
Konney
,
T.
,
2018
, “
Global Health Design: Clinical Immersion, Opportunity Identification and Definition, and Design Experiences
,”
Int. J. Eng. Educ.
,
34
(
2(B)
), pp.
780
800
.
70.
Hu
,
W.-L.
, and
Reid
,
T.
,
2018
, “
The Effects of Designers’ Contextual Experience on the Ideation Process and Design Outcomes
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
140
(
10
), p.
101101
.
71.
Burleson
,
G.
,
Herrera
,
S. V. S.
,
Toyama
,
K.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2021
, “
Initial Characterization of Novice Engineering Designers’ Consideration of Contextual Factors
,”
International Conference on Engineering Design
,
Gothenburg, Sweden
,
Aug. 16–20
, Cambridge University Press, pp.
1857
1866
.
72.
Garrison
,
D. R.
,
Cleveland-Innes
,
M.
,
Koole
,
M.
, and
Kappelman
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Revisiting Methodological Issues in Transcript Analysis: Negotiated Coding and Reliability
,”
Internet High. Educ.
,
9
(
1
), pp.
1
8
.
73.
Campbell
,
J. L.
,
Quincy
,
C.
,
Osserman
,
J.
, and
Pedersen
,
O. K.
,
2013
, “
Coding In-Depth Semistructured Interviews: Problems of Unitization and Intercoder Reliability and Agreement
,”
Sociol. Methods Res.
,
42
(
3
), pp.
294
320
.
74.
Terry
,
G.
, and
Hayfield
,
N.
,
2020
,
Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education
,
Edward Elgar Publishing
,
Northampton, MA
, pp.
430
441
.
75.
Cech
,
E. A.
,
2014
, “
Culture of Disengagement in Engineering Education?
,”
Sci. Technol. Hum. Values
,
39
(
1
), pp.
42
72
.
76.
Cech
,
E. A.
,
2013
, “The (Mis)Framing of Social Justice: Why Ideologies of Depoliticization and Meritocracy Hinder Engineers’ Ability to Think About Social Injustices,”
Engineering Education for Social Justice: Critical Explorations and Opportunities
,
J.
Lucena
, ed.,
Springer Netherlands
,
Dordrecht
, pp.
67
84
.
77.
Karwat
,
D. M. A.
,
Eagle
,
W. E.
,
Wooldridge
,
M. S.
, and
Princen
,
T. E.
,
2015
, “
Activist Engineering: Changing Engineering Practice by Deploying Praxis
,”
Sci. Eng. Ethics
,
21
(
1
), pp.
227
239
.
78.
Karwat
,
D. M. A.
,
2020
, “
Self-Reflection for Activist Engineering
,”
Sci. Eng. Ethics
,
26
(
3
), pp.
1329
1352
.
79.
Smith
,
J. M.
, and
Smith
,
N. M.
,
2018
, “
Engineering and the Politics of Commensuration in the Mining and Petroleum Industries
,”
Engag. Sci. Technol. Soc.
,
4
, pp.
67
84
.
80.
Morgan
,
D. L.
,
Davis
,
K. B.
, and
López
,
N.
,
2020
, “
Engineering Political Fluency: Identifying Tensions in the Political Identity Development of Engineering Majors
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
109
(
1
), pp.
107
124
.
81.
Boucher
,
J. L.
,
Levenda
,
A. M.
,
Morales-Guerrero
,
J.
,
Macias
,
M. M.
, and
Karwat
,
D. M. A.
,
2020
, “
Establishing a Field of Collaboration for Engineers, Scientists, and Community Groups: Incentives, Barriers, and Potential
,”
Earths Future
,
8
(
10
), pp.
1
19
.
82.
Bengtson
,
M.
,
Bharadwaj
,
M.
,
ten Bosch
,
A.
,
Nyakundi
,
H.
,
Matoke-Muhia
,
D.
,
Dekker
,
C.
, and
Diehl
,
J.-C.
,
2020
, “
Matching Development of Point-of-Care Diagnostic Tests to the Local Context: A Case Study of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Kenya and Uganda
,”
Glob. Health Sci. Pract.
,
8
(
3
), pp.
549
565
.
83.
Kelly
,
J. C.
,
Maheut
,
P.
,
Petiot
,
J.-F.
, and
Papalambros
,
P. Y.
,
2011
, “
Incorporating User Shape Preference in Engineering Design Optimisation
,”
J. Eng. Des.
,
22
(
9
), pp.
627
650
.
84.
Cross
,
N.
,
2021
,
Engineering Design Methods: Strategies for Product Design
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
85.
Baker
,
L.
,
2006
, “
Observation: A Complex Research Method
,”
Libr. Trends
,
55
(
1
), pp.
171
189
.
86.
Spradley
,
J. P.
,
1980
,
Participant Observation
,
Waveland Press
,
Long Grove, IL
.
87.
Zenios
,
S.
,
2009
, “Observation and Problem Identification,”
Biodesign: The Process of Innovating Medical Technologies
,
Cambridge University Press Textbooks
,
Cambridge
.
88.
Jagtap
,
S.
, and
Larsson
,
T.
,
2020
,
Designing integrated solutions for resource-limited societies in Research & Education in Design: People & Processes & Products & Philosophy
,
Taylor & Francis
,
London
, pp.
289
296
.
89.
Ward
,
T. A.
,
2013
, “
Common Elements of Capstone Projects in the World’s Top-Ranked Engineering Universities
,”
Eur. J. Eng. Educ.
,
38
(
2
), pp.
211
218
.
90.
Mohedas
,
I.
,
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
, and
Cravens
,
G. L.
,
2020
, “
Students’ Perceptions of the Value of Stakeholder Engagement During Engineering Design
,”
J. Eng. Educ.
,
109
(
4
), pp.
760
779
.
91.
McKenna
,
B.
,
Myers
,
M. D.
, and
Newman
,
M.
,
2017
, “
Social Media in Qualitative Research: Challenges and Recommendations
,”
Inf. Organ
,
27
(
2
), pp.
87
99
.
92.
Eilander
,
D.
,
Trambauer
,
P.
,
Wagemaker
,
J.
, and
van Loenen
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Harvesting Social Media for Generation of Near Real-Time Flood Maps
,”
Procedia Eng.
,
154
, pp.
176
183
.
93.
Tuarob
,
S.
, and
Tucker
,
C. S.
,
2014
, “
Discovering Next Generation Product Innovations by Identifying Lead User Preferences Expressed Through Large Scale Social Media Data
,”
International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
,
Buffalo, NY
,
Aug. 17–20
.
94.
Rodriguez-Calero
,
I. B.
,
Coulentianos
,
M. J.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
,
Burridge
,
J.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2020
, “
Prototyping Strategies for Stakeholder Engagement During Front-End Design: Design Practitioners’ Approaches in the Medical Device Industry
,”
Des. Stud.
,
71
, p.
100977
.
95.
Schweitzer
,
J.
,
Groeger
,
L.
, and
Sobel
,
L.
,
2016
, “
The Design Thinking Mindset: An Assessment of What We Know and What We See in Practice
,”
J. Des. Busi. Soc.
,
2
(
1
), pp.
71
92
.
96.
Adams
,
R. S.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
,
Mann
,
L. M.
, and
Dall’Alba
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Being a Professional: Three Lenses Into Design Thinking, Acting, and Being
,”
Des. Stud.
,
32
(
6
), pp.
588
607
.
97.
Atman
,
C. J.
,
2019
, “
Design Timelines: Concrete and Sticky Representations of Design Process Expertise
,”
Des. Stud.
,
65
, pp.
125
151
.
98.
Sadokierski
,
Z.
,
2020
, “
Developing Critical Documentation Practices for Design Researchers
,”
Des. Stud.
,
69
, p.
100940
.
99.
Coulentianos
,
M. J.
,
Rodriguez-Calero
,
I.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2020
, “
Stakeholder Engagement With Prototypes During Front-End Medical Device Design: Who Is Engaged With What Prototype?
Proceedings of the 2020 Design of Medical Devices Conference. 2020 Design of Medical Devices Conference
,
Minneapolis, MN
,
Apr. 6–9
.
100.
Coulentianos
,
M. J.
,
Rodriguez-Calero
,
I.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
,
Burridge
,
J.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2022
, “
Stakeholders, Prototypes, and Settings of Front-End Medical Device Design Activities
,”
ASME J. Med. Dev.
,
16
(
3
), p.
031010
.
101.
Coulentianos
,
M. J.
,
Rodriguez-Calero
,
I.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2020
, “
Global Health Front-End Medical Device Design: The Use of Prototypes to Engage Stakeholders
,”
Dev. Eng.
,
5
, p.
100055
.
102.
Smith
,
R. C.
, and
Iversen
,
O. S.
,
2018
, “
Participatory Design for Sustainable Social Change
,”
Des. Stud.
,
59
, pp.
9
36
.
103.
Loweth
,
R. P.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
,
Liu
,
J.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2020
, “
Assessing Needs in a Cross-Cultural Design Project: Student Perspectives and Challenges
,”
Int. J. Eng. Educ.
,
36
(
2
), pp.
712
731
.
104.
Mohedas
,
I.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
, and
Sienko
,
K. H.
,
2016
, “
Use of Skill Acquisition Theory to Understand Novice to Expert Development in Design Ethnography
,”
Int. J. Eng. Educ.
,
32
(
3(B)
), pp.
1364
1371
.
105.
Young
,
M. R.
,
Daly
,
S. R.
,
Hoffman
,
S. L.
,
Sienko
,
K. H.
, and
Gilleran
,
M. A.
,
2017
, “
Assessment of a Novel Learning Block Model for Engineering Design Skill Development: A Case Example for Engineering Design Interviewing
,”
2017 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition
,
Columbus, OH
,
June 25–28
.
106.
2020
,
ABET Requirements
, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology.
You do not currently have access to this content.