Abstract

To improve the toughness of Ni–P coatings, NiTi superelastic particles were introduced into the Ni–P matrix through the electroless co-depositing of Ni–P and Ti particles and annealing Ni–P–Ti coatings. The mechanical properties of the coatings were determined through bend testing bilayer specimens and tensile testing the standalone coating. The effects of Ti content and annealing on Young’s modulus, toughness, and fracture strength were investigated. After annealing, the toughness and strength improved considerably. The formation of the superelastic NiTi phase after annealing led to the improvement of toughness and fracture strength of the composite coating through transformation toughening, crack deflection, bridging, and shielding. Different toughening mechanisms interacted with each other and operated together. This contributed to the enhancement of toughness and fracture strength.

References

References
1.
Brenner
,
A.
, and
Riddell
,
G. E.
,
1946
, “
Nickel Plating on Steel by Chemical Reduction
,”
J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand
,
37
(
1
), pp.
31
34
. 10.6028/jres.037.019
2.
Zabrocky
,
S.
, and
Hajdu
,
J.
,
2000
, “
The Future of Electroless Nickel
,”
Metal Finish
,
98
(
5
), pp.
42
46
.
3.
Wang
,
C.
,
Farhat
,
Z.
,
Jarjoura
,
G.
,
Hassan
,
M. K.
, and
Abdullah
,
A. M.
,
2017
, “
Indentation and Erosion Behavior of Electroless Ni-P Coating on Pipeline Steel
,”
Wear
,
376–377
(
Part B
), pp.
1630
1639
. 10.1016/j.wear.2016.12.054
4.
Balaraju
,
J. N.
, and
Rajam
,
K. S.
,
2005
, “
Electroless Deposition of Ni–Cu–P, Ni–W–P and Ni–W–Cu–P Alloys
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
195
(
2–3
), pp.
154
161
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.07.068
5.
Tamilarasan
,
T. R.
,
Rajendran
,
R.
,
Rajagopal
,
G.
, and
Sudagar
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Effect of Surfactants on the Coating Properties and Corrosion Behaviour of Ni–P–Nano-TiO2 Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
276
, pp.
320
326
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.07.008
6.
Matik
,
U.
,
2016
, “
Structural and Wear Properties of Heat-Treated Electroless Ni-P Alloy and Ni-P-Si 3 N 4 Composite Coatings on Iron Based PM Compacts
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
302
, pp.
528
534
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.06.054
7.
Araghi
,
A.
, and
Paydar
,
M. H.
,
2010
, “
Electroless Deposition of Ni–P–B4C Composite Coating on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy and Investigation on Its Wear and Corrosion Resistance
,”
Mater. Des.
,
31
(
6
), pp.
3095
3099
. 10.1016/j.matdes.2009.12.042
8.
Lin
,
C. J.
,
Chen
,
K. C.
, and
He
,
J. L.
,
2006
, “
The Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Electroless Ni–P–SiC Composite Coating
,”
Wear
,
261
(
11–12
), pp.
1390
1396
. 10.1016/j.wear.2006.03.054
9.
Tamilarasan
,
T. R.
,
Sanjith
,
U.
,
Siva Shankar
,
M.
, and
Rajagopal
,
G.
,
2017
, “
Effect of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) on Corrosion and Erosion-Corrosion Behaviour of Electroless Ni-P Coatings
,”
Wear
,
390–391
, pp.
385
391
. 10.1016/j.wear.2017.09.004
10.
Neupane
,
R.
, and
Farhat
,
Z.
,
2013
, “
Wear and Dent Resistance of Superelastic TiNi Alloy
,”
Wear
,
301
(
1–2
), pp.
682
687
. 10.1016/j.wear.2012.11.017
11.
MacLean
,
M.
,
Farhat
,
Z.
,
Jarjoura
,
G.
,
Fayyad
,
E.
,
Abdullah
,
A.
, and
Hassan
,
M.
,
2019
, “
Fabrication and Investigation of the Scratch and Indentation Behaviour of New Generation Ni-P-Nano-NiTi Composite Coating for Oil and Gas Pipelines
,”
Wear
,
426–427
(
Part A
), pp.
265
276
. 10.1016/j.wear.2019.01.058
12.
Wang
,
C.
,
Farhat
,
Z.
,
Jarjoura
,
G.
,
Hassan
,
M. K.
, and
Abdullah
,
A. M.
,
2018
, “
Indentation and Bending Behavior of Electroless Ni-P-Ti Composite Coatings on Pipeline Steel
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
334
, pp.
243
252
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.10.074
13.
Cai
,
Z.
,
Cui
,
X.
,
Liu
,
E.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Dong
,
M.
,
Lu
,
B.
, and
Jin
,
G.
,
2017
, “
Fracture Behavior of High-Entropy Alloy Coating by In-Situ TEM Tensile Testing
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
729
, pp.
897
902
. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.09.233
14.
Sribalaji
,
M.
,
Asiq Rahman
,
O. S.
,
Laha
,
T.
, and
Keshri
,
A. K.
,
2016
, “
Nanoindentation and Nanoscratch Behavior of Electroless Deposited Nickel-Phosphorous Coating
,”
Mater. Chem. Phys.
,
177
, pp.
220
228
. 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2016.04.022
15.
Wang
,
C.
,
Farhat
,
Z.
,
Jarjoura
,
G.
,
Hassan
,
M. K.
,
Abdullah
,
A. M.
, and
Fayyad
,
E. M.
,
2017
, “
Investigation of Fracture Behavior of Annealed Electroless Ni-P Coating on Pipeline Steel Using Acoustic Emission Methodology
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
326
(
Part A
), pp.
336
342
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.07.067
16.
Rauzaud
,
A.
,
Barbier
,
E.
,
Ernoult
,
J.
, and
Quesnel
,
E.
,
1995
, “
A Method for Elastic Modulus Measurements of Magnetron Sputtered Thin Films Dedicated to Mechanical Applications
,”
Thin Solid Films
,
270
(
1–2
), pp.
270
274
. 10.1016/0040-6090(95)06921-6
17.
Fu
,
Q. S.
,
Yang
,
R. S.
, and
Li
,
M. T.
,
2014
, “
Study on Elastic Modulus of Porous Ti Coatings by Three-Point Bending and Indentation Measurement
,”
Adv. Mater. Res
,
910
, pp.
74
77
. 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.910.74
18.
Harry
,
E.
,
Rouzaud
,
A.
,
Ignat
,
M.
, and
Juliet
,
P.
,
1998
, “
Mechanical Properties of W and W(C) Thin Films: Young's Modulus, Fracture Toughness and Adhesion
,”
Thin Solid Films
,
332
(
1–2
), pp.
195
201
. 10.1016/S0040-6090(98)01056-6
19.
Zhao
,
Y.
,
Jiang
,
C.
,
Xu
,
Z.
,
Cai
,
F.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
, and
Fu
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Ti Nanoparticles Reinforced Ni–Ti Composite Coatings by Electrodeposition
,”
Mater. Des.
,
85
, pp.
39
46
. 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.06.144
20.
Wang
,
S.
,
Huang
,
X.
,
Gong
,
M.
, and
Huang
,
W.
,
2015
, “
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ni-P-Si 3 N 4 Nanowire Electroless Composite Coatings
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
357
(
Part A
), pp.
328
332
. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.09.011
21.
Ger
,
M. D.
, and
Hwang
,
B. J.
,
2002
, “
Effect of Surfactants on Codeposition of PTFE Particles With Electroless Ni-P Coating
,”
Mater. Chem. Phys.
,
76
(
1
), pp.
38
45
. 10.1016/S0254-0584(01)00513-2
22.
Alirezaei
,
S.
,
Monirvaghefi
,
S. M.
,
Salehi
,
M.
,
Saatchi
,
A.
, and
Kargosha
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Effect of Alumina Content on Wear Behaviour of Ni−P−Al2O3(α) Electroless Composite Coatings
,”
Surf. Eng.
,
21
(
1
), pp.
60
66
. 10.1179/174329305X23272
23.
El-Taib Heakal
,
F.
,
2016
, “
Role of Some Plating Parameters in the Properties of Ni-P/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Coatings on Mg Alloy
,”
Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.
,
11
, pp.
7198
7215
. 10.20964/2016.08.67
24.
Callister
,
W. D.
, and
Rethwisch
,
J. D. G.
,
2009
,
Materials Science and Engineering an Introduction
, 8th ed.,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
,
Hoboken, NJ
, pp.
212
214
.
25.
Rocha
,
S. S.
,
Adabo
,
G. L.
, and
Henriques
,
G. E.
,
2006
, “
Vickers Hardness of Cast Commercially Pure Titanium and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Sumitted to Heat Treatments
,”
Braz. Dent. J.
,
17
(
2
), pp.
126
129
. 10.1590/S0103-64402006000200008
26.
Balaraju
,
J. N.
,
Sankara Narayanan
,
T. S. N.
, and
Seshadri
,
S. K.
,
2003
, “
Electroless Ni–P Composite Coatings
,”
J. Appl. Electrochem.
,
33
(
9
), pp.
807
816
. 10.1023/A:1025572410205
27.
Sahoo
,
P.
, and
Das
,
S. K.
,
2011
, “
Tribology of Electroless Nickel Coatings—A Review
,”
Mater. Des.
,
32
(
4
), pp.
1760
1775
. 10.1016/j.matdes.2010.11.013
28.
Sudagar
,
J.
,
Lian
,
J.
, and
Sha
,
W.
,
2013
, “
Electroless Nickel, Alloy, Composite and Nano Coatings—A Critical Review
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
571
, pp.
183
204
. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.03.107
29.
Djavanroodi
,
F.
,
Ebrahimi
,
M.
, and
Nayfeh
,
J. F.
,
2019
, “
Tribological and Mechanical Investigation of Multi-Directional Forged Nickel
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
9
(
1
), p.
241
. 10.1038/s41598-018-36584-w
30.
Motemani
,
Y.
,
Nili-Ahmadabadi
,
M.
,
Tan
,
M. J.
,
Bornapour
,
M.
, and
Rayagan
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Effect of Cooling Rate on the Phase Transformation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Rich NiTi Shape Memory Alloy
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
469
(
1–2
), pp.
164
168
. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.01.153
31.
Guo
,
S.
,
Li
,
L.
,
Zhang
,
G.
,
Wang
,
W.
, and
Zhao
,
X.
,
2009
, “
Stress Analysis at the Interface Between Ni–P Coating and SiCp/Al Substrate of Space Mirror
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
255
(
6
), pp.
3691
3695
. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.10.023
32.
Karthikeyan
,
S.
,
Vijayaraghavan
,
L.
,
Madhavan
,
S.
, and
Almeida
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Study on the Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treated Electroless NiP Coatings Reinforced With Al2O3 Nano Particles
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
47
(
5
), pp.
2223
2231
. 10.1007/s11661-016-3413-y
33.
Luo
,
J. K.
,
Flewitt
,
A. J.
,
Spearing
,
S. M.
,
Fleck
,
N. A.
, and
Milne
,
W. I.
,
2004
, “
Young's Modulus of Electroplated Ni Thin Film for MEMS Applications
,”
Mater. Lett.
,
58
(
17–18
), pp.
2306
2309
. 10.1016/j.matlet.2004.02.044
34.
Lester
,
B. T.
,
Baxevanis
,
T.
,
Chemisky
,
Y.
, and
Lagoudas
,
D. C.
,
2015
, “
Review and Perspectives: Shape Memory Alloy Composite Systems
,”
Acta Mech.
,
226
(
12
), pp.
3907
3960
. 10.1007/s00707-015-1433-0
35.
Jang
,
J. S. C.
,
Jian
,
S. R.
,
Li
,
T. H.
,
Huang
,
J. C.
,
Tsao
,
C. Y. A.
, and
Liu
,
C. T.
,
2009
, “
Structural and Mechanical Characterizations of Ductile Fe Particles-Reinforced Mg-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
485
(
1–2
), pp.
290
294
. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.06.084
36.
Jang
,
J. S. C.
,
Li
,
J. B.
,
Lee
,
S. L.
,
Chang
,
Y. S.
,
Jian
,
S. R.
,
Huang
,
J. C.
, and
Nieh
,
T. G.
,
2012
, “
Prominent Plasticity of Mg-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites by Ex-Situ Spherical Ti Particles
,”
Intermetallics
,
30
, pp.
25
29
. 10.1016/j.intermet.2012.03.038
37.
Bergman
,
B.
,
1985
, “
On the Variability of the Fracture Stress of Brittle Materials
,”
J. Mater. Sci. Lett.
,
4
(
9
), pp.
1143
1146
. 10.1007/BF00720438
38.
Lawn
,
B.
,
1993
,
Fracture of Brittle Solids
,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, NY
.
39.
Ritchie
,
R. O.
,
1988
, “
Mechanisms of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Metals, Ceramics and Composites: Role of Crack Tip Shielding
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
103
(
1
), pp.
15
28
. 10.1016/0025-5416(88)90547-2
40.
Sun
,
X. D.
, and
Yeomans
,
J. A.
,
1996
, “
Microstructure and Fracture Toughness of Nickel Particle Toughened Alumina Matrix Composites
,”
J. Mater. Sci.
,
31
(
4
), pp.
875
880
. 10.1007/BF00352885
41.
Faber
,
K. T.
,
Iwagoshi
,
T.
, and
Ghosh
,
A.
,
1988
, “
Toughening by Stress-Induced Microcracking in Two Phase Ceramics
,”
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
,
71
(
9
), pp.
399
401
. 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1988.tb06419.x
42.
Ni
,
D. R.
, and
Ma
,
Z. Y.
,
2014
, “
Shape Memory Alloy-Reinforced Metal-Matrix Composites: A Review
,”
Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.)
,
27
(
5
), pp.
739
761
. 10.1007/s40195-014-0164-x
43.
Kang
,
N.
,
Coddet
,
P.
,
Liao
,
H.
, and
Coddet
,
C.
,
2015
, “
The Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Cold Spray Zr Base Metal Glass/Cu Composite
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
280
, pp.
64
71
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.08.061
44.
Chang
,
C. S.
,
Hou
,
K. H.
,
Ger
,
M. D.
,
Chung
,
C. K.
, and
Lin
,
J. F.
,
2016
, “
Effects of Annealing Temperature on Microstructure, Surface Roughness, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Ni–P and Ni–P/SiC Films
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
288
, pp.
135
143
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.01.020
You do not currently have access to this content.