It is shown that the elastic deformations, and therefore the forces and moments, in a bolted-flanged connection vary with the magnitude of the internal fluid pressure, and that the actual conditions existing in a bolted joint will be considerably different from those assumed when using the concept of design upon which the rules of the ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code must be based. For certain critical ranges of joint diameter, pressure, and stress, it becomes important to analyze the design for the actual conditions that will be obtained (a) in assembling the joint, (b) at test pressure, and (c) in service. Formulas are derived for calculating these conditions and the results are summarized in the form of a design procedure.

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