In this study, we carry out robust optimal design for the machining operations, one key process in wafer polishing in chip manufacturing, aiming to avoid the peculiar regenerative chatter and maximize the material removal rate (MRR) considering the inherent material and process uncertainty. More specifically, we characterize the cutting tool dynamics using a delay differential equation (DDE) and enlist the temporal finite element method (TFEM) to derive its approximate solution and stability index given process settings or design variables. To further quantify the inherent uncertainty, replications of TFEM under different realizations of random uncontrollable variables are performed, which however incurs extra computational burden. To eschew the deployment of such a crude Monte Carlo (MC) approach at each design setting, we integrate the stochastic TFEM with a stochastic surrogate model, stochastic kriging, in an active learning framework to sequentially approximate the stability boundary. The numerical result suggests that the nominal stability boundary attained from this method is on par with that from the crude MC, but only demands a fraction of the computational overhead. To further ensure the robustness of process stability, we adopt another surrogate, the Gaussian process, to predict the variance of the stability index at unexplored design points and identify the robust stability boundary per the conditional value at risk (CVaR) criterion. Therefrom, an optimal design in the robust stable region that maximizes the MRR can be identified.