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Top row: low magnification images showing concentric remodeling with thicke...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 1 Top row: low magnification images showing concentric remodeling with thicker ventricle walls in PO and increased chamber size with decreased wall thickness-to-chamber diameter ratio in VO compared to control. Second row: Hematoxylin and eosin staining for measurement of myocyte cross-sectio... More
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Average fits of LV-EDPVR curves for each group ( n  = 4 for control and PO,...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 2 Average fits of LV-EDPVR curves for each group ( n  = 4 for control and PO, n  = 5 for VO). The shift up and to the left demonstrates an increase in PO chamber stiffness. The shift down and to the right shows a decrease in chamber stiffness in VO chambers. Error bars are SEM. Average fit... More
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(Left) Average stress–strain curves from equibiaxial testing in the longitu...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 3 (Left) Average stress–strain curves from equibiaxial testing in the longitudinal and circumferential direction. N  = 9 for PO and control, n  = 10 for VO. ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test was performed, error bars are SEM, and * indicates p  < 0.05 compared to control. (Right) Circumf... More
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( a )  β  index of chamber stiffness from EDPVR curves. ( b )  β  normalize...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 4 ( a ) β index of chamber stiffness from EDPVR curves. ( b ) β normalized with wall volume. ( c ) Calculated incremental modulus using modeled strains from the midwall and ( d ) modeled strains from the endocardium. N  = 4 for PO and VO, n  = 5 for control. ANOVA followed by Dunnett's ... More
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Parameters related to the mechanical properties of the tissue in the longit...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 5 Parameters related to the mechanical properties of the tissue in the longitudinal and circumferential direction. N  = 9 for PO and control, n  = 10 for VO. ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test was performed, error bars are SEM, and * indicates p  < 0.05 compared to control. Parameters r... More
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Secant moduli calculated at small (0.5%) and large (3%) strains in the circ...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 6 Secant moduli calculated at small (0.5%) and large (3%) strains in the circumferential and longitudinal axes directions. *indicates p  < 0.05 compared to control. Secant moduli calculated at small (0.5%) and large (3%) strains in the circumferential and longitudinal axes directions. *... More
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Schematic of Control and Nucleotomy models. The annulus fibrosus (AF) was s...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 1 Schematic of Control and Nucleotomy models. The annulus fibrosus (AF) was separated into four anatomical regions (red = anterior, blue = lateral, and green = posterior). Fiber orientation alternated between layers, decreasing from ±43 deg with respect to the horizontal plane in the inner AF... More
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( a ) Compressive stress versus normalized change in disc height and ( b ) ...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 2 ( a ) Compressive stress versus normalized change in disc height and ( b ) normalized compressive stiffness in the toe and linear regions, which was calculated as the slope of compressive stress versus normalized change in disc height. (Color version online.) (a) Compressive stress versus... More
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Anterior, posterior, and lateral bulging at the outer AF and NP–AF interfac...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 3 Anterior, posterior, and lateral bulging at the outer AF and NP–AF interface, measured at the mid-disc height under 936 N of axial compression. Negative values represent inward bulging and positive values represent outward bulging with respect to the reference configuration. (Color version ... More
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( a ) Torque versus rotation angle for Control (black) and Nucleotomy (blue...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 4 ( a ) Torque versus rotation angle for Control (black) and Nucleotomy (blue) models under axial torsion, flexion, extension, and lateral bending and ( b ) disc joint stiffness was calculated as the slope of each torque–rotation curve. “+” for labels on the x -axis indicates that each loadi... More
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( a ) Axial stress distribution at the midtransverse plane and ( b ) radial...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 5 ( a ) Axial stress distribution at the midtransverse plane and ( b ) radial and ( c ) circumferential direction stress distributions at the midsagittal plane for Control (top row) and Nucleotomy (bottom) models. Axial torsion, flexion, extension, or lateral bending was applied after axial c... More
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( a ) Axial, ( b ) radial, and ( c ) circumferential strain distributions a...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 6 ( a ) Axial, ( b ) radial, and ( c ) circumferential strain distributions at the midsagittal plane for Control (top row) and Nucleotomy (bottom row) models. “+” indicates axial torsion, flexion, extension, or lateral bending was applied after compression. (Color version online.) (a) Axial... More
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Data shown in the left column represents volume ratio of fiber elements und...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 7 Data shown in the left column represents volume ratio of fiber elements under tension for each lamellae, including data from the anterior, posterior, and lateral regions. Data shown in the right column represents layer-averaged fiber stretch with respect to lamellae layer. For all plots, La... More
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( a ) Fiber stretch and ( b ) reorientation for the Control (top row) and N...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 8 ( a ) Fiber stretch and ( b ) reorientation for the Control (top row) and Nucleotomy (bottom row) model under torsion, flexion, extension, and lateral bending, which was applied after axial compression (represented by “+”). Positive values represent fiber reorientation toward the axial plan... More
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Layer-averaged fiber reorientation for Control (black) and Nucleotomy (blue...
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Fig. 9 Layer-averaged fiber reorientation for Control (black) and Nucleotomy (blue) models. ( a ) Flexion (triangles), extension (diamonds), lateral bending (squares), and ( b ) torsion (circles) was applied after axial compression. Positive values represent fiber reorientation toward the axial pl... More
Journal Articles
Article Type: Research-Article
J Biomech Eng. August 2021, 143(8): 081002.
Paper No: BIO-20-1032
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Journal Articles
Article Type: Research-Article
J Biomech Eng. August 2021, 143(8): 081003.
Paper No: BIO-20-1275
Published Online: April 21, 2021
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Articles
Accepted Manuscript
Article Type: Technical Briefs
J Biomech Eng.
Paper No: BIO-21-1015
Published Online: April 20, 2021
Journal Articles
Accepted Manuscript
Article Type: Technical Briefs
J Biomech Eng.
Paper No: BIO-20-1253
Published Online: April 20, 2021
Journal Articles
Accepted Manuscript
Article Type: Research-Article
J Biomech Eng.
Paper No: BIO-21-1078
Published Online: April 20, 2021