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Research Papers

Passive Alignment Method for the Bonding of Flat Surfaces Using a Squeeze Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Willy Lecarpentier

Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Sherbrooke,
3000 Université Boulevard,
Sherbrooke, QC, J1K 0A5, Canada
e-mail: willy.lecarpentier@usherbrooke.ca

Julien Sylvestre

Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Sherbrooke,
3000 Université Boulevard,
Sherbrooke, QC, J1K 0A5, Canada
e-mail: julien.sylvestre@usherbrooke.ca

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Applied Mechanics. Manuscript received March 22, 2019; final manuscript received May 25, 2019; published online June 27, 2019. Assoc. Editor: N. R. Aluru.

J. Appl. Mech 86(9), 091009-091009 -11 (Jun 27, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: JAM-19-1130; doi: 10.1115/1.4043911 History: Received March 22, 2019; Accepted May 25, 2019

A method to passively align bonded components without direct mechanical contact has been developed. This method uses the pressure field generated by the squeeze flow between the parts during the bonding process to increase the parallelism of planar components. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model has been developed to study the squeeze flow phenomenon and to determine generated efforts. Based on these calculations, an assembly stage standing on a flexure pinned linkage has been developed. This assembly stage had two purposes. The first was to show the possibility of passive mechanical alignment using a squeeze flow. The second was to measure efforts to confirm the CFD model. These measurements have led to a refined CFD model taking into account the non-Newtonian behavior of the fluid at high shear rates. This technique was initially developed for the assembly of a fiber-optic-to-silicon-chip-interface. Other potential applications could be wafer bonding, bonding of multiple wafer stacks, or 3D integrated circuits.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Squeeze flow between parallel surfaces

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Fig. 2

Squeeze flow between tilted surfaces

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Fig. 3

Pressure field computed analytically for 25 mm2 square plates separated by 1 µm, with a squeezing speed of 100 µm s−1

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Fig. 4

Pressure field computed by CFD for 25 mm2 square plates separated by 1 µm, with a squeezing speed of 100 µm s−1. Only one quarter of the field is shown.

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Fig. 5

Relative error between the pressure field computed by CFD and the pressure field computed analytically. Only one quarter of the field is shown.

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Fig. 6

Pressure field computed by CFD for plates tilted by 0.01 deg about the y-axis. Only one half of the field is shown.

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Fig. 7

Variation in force and torque with the distance between the plates during CFD simulation

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Fig. 8

Computer aided design (CAD) representation of the assembly stage

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Fig. 9

Sapphire pinned linkage

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Fig. 11

Drawing of the calibration tip (represented in millimeter)

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Fig. 12

Drawing of the assembly tip (represented in millimeter). It is mounted on a micro goniometer (not represented).

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Fig. 13

2D representation of the assembly stage

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Fig. 14

Tilt response to a torque in the x direction

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Fig. 15

Tilt response to a torque in the y direction

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Fig. 16

Force versus deformation of the assembly stage

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Fig. 17

Evolution of the corrected gap and the force applied during the test

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Fig. 18

Evolution of the tilt and the measured torque during the test

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Fig. 19

Evolution of gap and applied force for test 1 (blue), test 2 (red), and test 3 (green)

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Fig. 20

Evolution of tilts and torques for test 1 in the x direction (blue) and the y direction (red), test 2 in the x direction (cyan) and the y direction (magenta), and test 3 in the y direction (green)

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Fig. 21

Torque measurements (red) comparison with CFD predictions for constant (blue) and power-law (green) viscosity

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Fig. 22

Viscosity dependence of glycerin on shear rate (three sets of measurements)

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