Research Papers

Nanoscale Deformation Analysis With High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Digital Image Correlation

[+] Author and Article Information
Xueju Wang, Zhipeng Pan, Feifei Fan, Ting Zhu

Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

Jiangwei Wang, Scott X. Mao

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science,
University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261

Yang Liu

Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies,
Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM 87185

Shuman Xia

Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: shuman.xia@me.gatech.edu

1Present address: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received June 20, 2015; final manuscript received August 15, 2015; published online September 10, 2015. Editor: Yonggang Huang.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Appl. Mech 82(12), 121001 (Sep 10, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: JAM-15-1325; doi: 10.1115/1.4031332 History: Received June 20, 2015; Revised August 15, 2015

We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. The DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

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Fig. 1

(a) A TEM image showing the random atomic structure in amorphous silicon (a-Si), which serves as a high-quality speckle pattern for DIC analysis. (b) Schematic illustration of an in situ electrochemical lithiation experiment inside a TEM. (c) Schematic ray diagram of a TEM.

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Fig. 2

Assessment of the DIC errors due to the TEM image noise. Maps of ((a) and (b)) displacements and ((c) and (d)) DIC strain errors resulting from the TEM image noise.

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Fig. 3

Assessment of the DIC errors due to the electromagnetic-lens distortion. Maps of ((a) and (b)) displacements and ((c) and (d)) DIC strain errors resulting from a rigid-body translation of the a-Si sample.

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Fig. 4

Assessment of the DIC errors due to the image shift operation. Maps of ((a) and (b)) displacements and ((c) and (d)) DIC strain errors resulting from a rigid-body shift of the imaging window.

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Fig. 5

Local DIC analysis of the lithium-diffusion-induced strain in a lithiated Si region. ((a) and (b)) Reference and deformed TEM images used for the DIC analysis. ((c) and (d)) Obtained εxx and εyy strain contour plots superimposed on the reference TEM image as shown in (a).

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Fig. 6

Plots of the trial (a) displacement and (b) strain functions used for the global DIC analysis of the reaction-induced strain at an a-Si/a-LixSi phase boundary

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Fig. 7

Global DIC analysis of the reaction-induced strain at an a-Si/a-LixSi phase boundary. (a) The first image in a sequence of TEM images serving as the reference image for the global DIC analysis. ((b)–(d)) Obtained εyy strain contour plots superimposed on the subsequent TEM images at various stages of lithiation. (e) Obtained strain profiles across the a-Si/a-LixSi phase boundary. Note that the strain analysis is made with respect to the reference image in (a). The width of the reaction zone with large strain increases as the lithiation proceeds.



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