Terminal Ballistics and Impact Physics

Simulation of Impact Tests With Hard, Soft and Liquid Filled Missiles on Reinforced Concrete Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Christian Heckötter

e-mail: christian.heckoetter@grs.de

Jürgen Sievers

e-mail: juergen.sievers@grs.de
Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbh,
Schwertnergasse 1,
50667 Cologne, Germany

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received July 4, 2012; final manuscript received November 5, 2012; accepted manuscript posted January 18, 2013; published online April 19, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Bo S. G. Janzon.

J. Appl. Mech 80(3), 031805 (Apr 19, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: JAM-12-1303; doi: 10.1115/1.4023391 History: Received July 04, 2012; Revised November 05, 2012; Accepted January 18, 2013

Vital parts of nuclear facilities are commonly protected by reinforced concrete (rc-) structures. In order to assess the barrier effectiveness of these structures, different internal and external loads have to be considered. Among others, external missile impacts, for instance due to an airplane crash, are assumed to be relevant loading cases. In this context, impacts of nondeformable (“hard”), deformable (“soft”) as well as liquid filled (“wet”) missiles are considered. Major rc-target failure mechanisms are global bending, punching and perforation. This paper presents simulations with the computer program AUTODYN (ANSYS INC., 2010, ANSYS AUTODYN, Version 13.0 & Theory Manual) on intermediate- and large-scale impact experiments dealing with the aforementioned failure mechanisms. Missile velocities are in the range of 110 to 250 m/s. In particular, two different intermediate scale test series are considered. One test deals with predominant punching failure and perforation of a rc-slab (target) hit by a hard missile. Further, bending vibration of slabs impacted by soft missiles is analyzed, whereupon the influence of liquid infill on loading and target response is pointed out. Finally, a large scaled test with combined bending and punching failure of a rc-slab due to soft missile impact is considered. Results of numerical simulation and tests are compared. It is found, that the used concret material model developed by Riedel, Hiermaier, and Thoma (RHT) (Riedel, 2004, “Beton Unter Dynamischen Lasten: Meso-Und Makromechanische Modelle Und Ihre Parameter, Fraunhofer–Ernst-Mach-Institut, Freiburg/Br., ISBN 3-8167-6340-5) is suitable to reproduce the responses of rc-structures subjected to various kinds of impact conditions. Sensitivities of simulation results on modeling parameters are discussed.

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Fig. 1

Missile designs and experimentally realized parameters

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Fig. 2

Components of SPH model for VTT Punching test

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Fig. 3

Slab penetration for VTT Punching test after 5 ms in test, Lagrange- and SPH model (backside of the target above, front side below)

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Fig. 4

Comparison of measured and simulated residual missile velocities in VTT Punching tests

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Fig. 5

Comparison of load time functions and missile deformations after 10 ms in VTT Bending tests

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Fig. 6

Comparison of slab displacements on the rear face in VTT Bending tests

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Fig. 7

Load-time functions (a), gauge layout at the rear face (c), measured and simulated slab displacements at positions of central (b) and exterior (d) gauges in Meppen II/4 test

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Fig. 8

Comparison of simulated damage distribution and crack patterns observed in Meppen II/4 test



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