RESEARCH PAPERS: Terminal Ballistics

Penetration of Porous Jets

[+] Author and Article Information
Eitan Hirsch2

Private: 6 Tachkemony Street, Netanya 42611, Israelheitanon@bezeqint.net

Meir Mayseless2 n3

 IMI, P.O. Box 1044, Ramat Hasharon 47100, Israelofram@construct.haifa.ac.il


The authors contributed equally to the paper, and the order of their names is random.


Corresponding author.

J. Appl. Mech 77(5), 051803 (Jun 10, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001287 History: Received July 26, 2009; Revised December 12, 2009; Published June 10, 2010; Online June 10, 2010

Jets that emanate from high density porous liners are most widely used for penetration into Earth materials. These shaped-charges differ from those that contain solid copper liners in three major aspects: the porosity, the usually higher initial density, and the very short standoff in which they typically operate. Because penetration depth is commonly very difficult to increase by means of high density solid liners, it is important to understand the benefit of using porous liners in utilization of high density materials. The models published so far to describe the performance of jets formed by porous liners are based on the modification of the virtual origin model to suit this special case, which limits the accuracy of their predictions. Here we present a more general analysis that does not depend on the virtual origin assumption. Our study employs the SCAN semi-analytical code into which a new model for porous jet behavior is incorporated. It is used to explain the benefit of using this type of liner for oil-well penetration, hence penetration into low density targets, as opposed to penetration into hard steel.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Density , Steel , Jets , Copper , Soil , Concretes
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Figure 7

Jet velocity versus penetration depth, after penetrating the steel-water sandwich

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Figure 8

Crater profile (top line) and jet radius (bottom line) as a function of penetration depth

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Figure 9

Crater radius versus penetration depth in concrete, for porous (broken line) and solid jet (solid line)

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Figure 10

Jet velocity and jet penetration velocity into sediment versus penetration depth, for solid jet (solid lines) and for porous jet (broken lines)

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Figure 11

Accumulated crater surface area for a solid copper jet (solid line) and for a porous jet (broken line)

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Figure 12

Penetration of jets at short standoff: porous (broken line) and solid (solid line) into mild steel

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Figure 1

X-ray radiograph of a porous jet in free air at about 250 μs after initiation (bottom) and 150 μs later (top)

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Figure 2

Two X-ray radiographs of the tail of the jet at the region where the penetration ends. The jet on top is pictured 200 μs after the jet below it. The velocities of the jet at A, B, and C are 750 m/s, 1050 m/s and 1230 m/s, respectively.

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Figure 3

Radius of a jet element originating from the center of the liner, for a metallic liner (solid line) and for a porous liner (broken line)

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Figure 4

Porous jet exiting a concrete target at about one meter distance, about 1 ms after detonation

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Figure 5

The fit of the SCAN code calculation (solid line) to the penetration times versus penetration-depth measurements (broken line)

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Figure 6

Jet average mass density versus penetration depth



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