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TECHNICAL PAPERS

# Craters Produced by Explosions on the Soil Surface

[+] Author and Article Information
Ricardo Daniel Ambrosini1

National University of Cuyo, CONICET, Los Franceses 1537, 5600 San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentinadambrosini@uncu.edu.ar

Bibiana María Luccioni

Structures Institute, National University of Tucumán, CONICET, J.B. Terán 375, Yerba Buena, Tucumán, Argentinabluccioni@herrera.unt.edu.ar

1

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Appl. Mech 73(6), 890-900 (Dec 20, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2173283 History: Received May 23, 2005; Revised December 20, 2005

## Abstract

Explosives are commonly used in terrorist attacks and the craters formed by blast waves can be used as a diagnostic tool. For example, the focus of the explosion and the mass of the explosive used in the attack can be deduced by examining the location, geometry, and dimensions of the crater. However, studies about craters produced by explosions on or above ground level, which would be the case when the explosive charge is situated in a vehicle, are rarely found in the open technical literature. In this paper, a numerical study on craters formed by explosive loads located on the soil surface is presented. The soil parameters used in the numerical model, as well as the analysis procedure, were validated against experimental observations of the crater diameters. Results of numerical tests performed with different amounts of explosive on the soil surface are presented. Moreover, the effect of elevation of the center of energy release of explosive loads located on the soil surface is analyzed and discussed. Simple predictive equations for the crater diameter are presented.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Definitions of the crater dimensions

Figure 2

Figure 3

Superficial explosion crater obtained in a test

Figure 4

Numerical model for explosives charges situated on the ground level: (a) mesh and (b) material location

Figure 5

Crater formation (10kg TNT on the ground). (a)t=0.5ms. (b)t=1.1ms. (c)t=2.0ms. (d)t=5.2ms. (e)t=10.0ms (AUTODYN-2D (18)). Model of 12.5×6.0m2.

Figure 6

Crater formation. Final state of the crater obtained numerically.

Figure 7

Wave propagation. (a) Velocity field in the air. (b) Pressure contours in the soil. (c) Von Mises stresses. 50kg of TNT with the energy release center at the ground level. 1.17ms.

Figure 8

Comparison of numerical and experimental crater diameters

Figure 9

Apparent crater diameter for explosions on and above the ground level

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