The Soret Effect: A Review of Recent Experimental Results

[+] Author and Article Information
Jean K. Platten

 University of Mons-Hainaut, Place du Parc, 20, Mons 7000, Belgium

J. Appl. Mech 73(1), 5-15 (Apr 17, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1992517 History: Received August 13, 2004; Revised April 17, 2005

In the first part of the paper, we recall what the Soret effect is, together with its applications in science and industry. We emphasize the need to have a reliable data base for the Soret coefficient. Next we review the different techniques to measure the Soret coefficient (elementary Soret cell, beam deflection technique, thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering technique, convective coupling and, in particular, the onset of convection in horizontal layers and the thermogravitational method). Results are provided for several systems, with both negative and positive Soret coefficients, and comparison between several laboratories are made for the same systems. We end with “benchmark” values of the Soret coefficient for some organic liquid mixtures of interest in the oil industry and to which all future new techniques should refer before gaining confidence. We conclude that correct values of the Soret coefficient can be obtained in earth conditions and we deny the need to go to microgravity.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Sketch of an elementary Soret cell

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Figure 2

Sketch of an elementary Soret cell using the beam deflection technique

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Figure 3

Crossing of the beams in the sample (a) and zoom on the fringes (b) in the TDFRS technique

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Figure 4

Variation of the critical Rayleigh number in the Rayleigh-Benard configuration as a function of the separation ratio

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Figure 5

Oscillatory onset of convection at ΔT=1.84°C in the system water (90wt%)−isopropanol(10wt%). Mean temperature: 21°C.

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Figure 6

Sketch of the thermogravitational column

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Figure 7

Density profile in the thermogravitational column in the system water (60.88wt%)−ethanol(39.12wt%). Tcold=20°C; Thot=25°C.

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Figure 8

Mass expansion coefficient in the system water (60.88wt%)−ethanol(39.12wt%)

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Figure 9

Thermal expansion coefficient in the system water (60.88wt%)−ethanol(39.12wt%)

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Figure 10

Sketch of the open ended tube (OET) technique for measuring the isothermal diffusion coefficient

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Figure 11

Time variation of the logarithm of the mean tube concentration in the OET

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Figure 12

Time variation of the velocity amplitude in pure ethanol

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Figure 13

Time variation of the velocity amplitude in the system water (60.88wt%)−ethanol(39.12wt%)



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