A fully 3D, continuum mechanics based model of skeletal muscle, validated against experimental force data, can be used to computationally solve for individual muscle forces. A constitutive formulation, representing muscle as a transversely isotropic, hyperelastic, and isovolumetric material [1] has been implemented in a finite element model (FEM) of passive skeletal muscle and validated against experimental tension measurements [2]. Of further interest is an expanded formulation that will allow for the addition of muscle activation levels on the overall skeletal muscle force generation. The purpose of this study was to expand the FEA model to include muscle activation and validate it with tests of active skeletal muscle tissue at varied lengths.

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