Industrial use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has a surprisingly long history. The first practical refrigeration system was built in 1873; the first commercial liquefaction plant was built in 1917. Over time two applications have been developed that are relevant to the current paper. The first involves storage of LNG to handle peak demand in pipeline systems, the process is identified as “peak shaving”. A second application is the transport of hydrocarbon fuel where gas pipelines are unavailable.

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