Human subject experiments were performed to determine the influence of multimodal virtual environment display parameters on the perception of haptic, visual, and aural material properties. Twelve subjects participated in two experiments. Subjects were presented with a test material (real or virtual) and were asked to select one of three reference materials which most closely matched the test material. Subject were also asked to rate the quality of the match on a 1–5 scale. The test and reference materials were presented to subjects through a television monitor. The visual characteristics of the virtual materials were generated on a graphics display, the haptic characteristics were displayed using a single degree of freedom haptic device, and the aural characteristics were created using prerecorded sound clips. The results of the two experiments suggest that haptic characteristics played an important role in the matching process while sound and visual characteristics played an important role in the quality rating process.

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