To optimize a freezing protocol for tissue systems, knowledge of intercellular ice formation and water transport is essential. Water transport during freezing can be measured using low temperature microscopy technique [1] and/or by differential scanning calorimetry method [2]. To study the formation of intracellular ice in cells embedded in an extracellular matrix we propose to design and develop an array of microscale thermocouples using microfabrication techniques [3]. The microfabricated thermocouples will be required to accurately measure the small temperature fluctuations in an embedded cell due to the formation of intracellular ice.

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