To optimize a freezing protocol for tissue systems, knowledge of intercellular ice formation and water transport is essential. Water transport during freezing can be measured using low temperature microscopy technique  and/or by differential scanning calorimetry method . To study the formation of intracellular ice in cells embedded in an extracellular matrix we propose to design and develop an array of microscale thermocouples using microfabrication techniques . The microfabricated thermocouples will be required to accurately measure the small temperature fluctuations in an embedded cell due to the formation of intracellular ice.
On the Possible Application of a Microscale Thermocouple to Measure Intercellular Ice Formation in Cells Embedded in an Extracellular Matrix
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Kandra, D, & Devireddy, RV. "On the Possible Application of a Microscale Thermocouple to Measure Intercellular Ice Formation in Cells Embedded in an Extracellular Matrix." Proceedings of the ASME 2004 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Heat Transfer, Volume 1. Anaheim, California, USA. November 13–19, 2004. pp. 705-707. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2004-60728
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