A possible method for analytically modeling a CC-VAWT (Circulation Controlled Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) is the momentum model, based upon the conservation of momentum principal. This model can consist of a single or multiple stream tubes and/or upwind and downwind partitions. A large number of stream tubes and the addition of the partition can increase the accuracy of the model predictions. The CC-VAWT blade has blowing slots located on the top and bottom trailing edges and have the capability to be site controlled in multiple sections along the span of the blade. The turbine blade, augmented to include circulation control capabilities, replaces the sharp trailing edge of a standard airfoil with a rounded surface located adjacent to the blowing slots. Circulation control (CC), along with a rounded trailing edge, induces the Coanda effect, entraining the flow field near the blowing slots thus preventing or delaying separation. Ultimately, circulation control adds momentum due to the mass flow of air coming out of the blowing slots, but is negligible compared to the momentum of the free stream air passing through the area of the turbine. In order to design for a broader range of operating speeds that will take advantage of circulation control, an analytical model of a CC-VAWT is helpful. The analytical modeling of a CC-VAWT could provide insight into the range of operational speeds in which circulation control is beneficial. The ultimate goal is to increase the range of operating speeds where the turbine produces power. Improvements to low-speed power production and the elimination or reduction of startup assistance could be possible with these modifications. Vertical axis wind turbines are typically rated at a particular ratio of rotational to wind speed operating range. In reality, however, wind speeds are variant and stray from the operating range causing the power production of a wind turbine to suffer. These turbines, unless designed specifically for low speed operation, may require rotational startup assistance. The added lift due to circulation control at low wind speeds, under certain design conditions, will allow the CC-VAWT to produce more power than a conventional VAWT of the same size. Circulation control methods, such as using blowing slots on the trailing edge are modeled as they are applied to a VAWT blade. A preliminary CC-VAWT was modeled using a standard NACA 0018 airfoil, modified to include blowing slots and a rounded trailing edge. This paper describes an analytical momentum model that can be used to predict the preliminary performance of a CC-VAWT.
- Advanced Energy Systems Division and Solar Energy Division
Momentum Analytical Model of a Circulation Controlled Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Wilhelm, JP, Panther, C, Pertl, FA, & Smith, JE. "Momentum Analytical Model of a Circulation Controlled Vertical Axis Wind Turbine." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability collocated with the Heat Transfer and InterPACK09 Conferences. ASME 2009 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Volume 2. San Francisco, California, USA. July 19–23, 2009. pp. 1009-1017. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ES2009-90352
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