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J. Appl. Mech. 2017;84(8):081002-081002-16. doi:10.1115/1.4036612.

A new one-dimensional high-order sandwich panel theory for curved panels is presented and compared with the theory of elasticity. The theory accounts for the sandwich core compressibility in the radial direction as well as the core circumferential rigidity. Two distinct core displacement fields are proposed and investigated. One is a logarithmic (it includes terms that are linear, inverse, and logarithmic functions of the radial coordinate). The other is a polynomial (it consists of second and third-order polynomials of the radial coordinate), and it is an extension of the corresponding field for the flat panel. In both formulations, the two thin curved face sheets are assumed to be perfectly bonded to the core and follow the classical Euler–Bernoulli beam assumptions. The relative merits of these two approaches are assessed by comparing the results to an elasticity solution. The case examined is a simply supported curved sandwich panel subjected to a distributed transverse load, for which a closed-form elasticity solution can be formulated. It is shown that the logarithmic formulation is more accurate than the polynomial especially for the stiffer cores and for curved panels of smaller radius.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Appl. Mech. 2017;84(8):081003-081003-19. doi:10.1115/1.4036942.

We study cross-flow vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a linearly sprung circular cylinder equipped with a dissipative oscillator with cubic stiffness nonlinearity, restrained to move in the direction of travel of the cylinder. The dissipative, essentially nonlinear coupling between the cylinder and the oscillator allows for targeted energy transfer (TET) from the former to the latter, whereby the oscillator acts as a nonlinear energy sink (NES) capable of passively suppressing cylinder oscillations. For fixed values of the Reynolds number (Re = 48, slightly above the fixed-cylinder Hopf bifurcation), cylinder-to-fluid density ratio, and dimensionless cylinder spring constant, spectral-element simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations coupled to the rigid-body motion show that different combinations of NES parameters lead to different long-time attractors of the dynamics. We identify four such attractors which do not coexist at any given point in the parameter space, three of which lead to at least partial VIV suppression. We construct a reduced-order model (ROM) of the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) based on a wake oscillator to analytically study those four mechanisms seen in the high-fidelity simulations and determine their respective regions of existence in the parameter space. Asymptotic analysis of the ROM relies on complexification-averaging (CX-A) and slow–fast partition of the transient dynamics and predicts the existence of complete and partial VIV-suppression mechanisms, relaxation cycles, and Hopf and Shilnikov bifurcations. These outcomes are confirmed by numerical integration of the ROM and comparisons with spectral-element simulations of the full system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Appl. Mech. 2017;84(8):081006-081006-12. doi:10.1115/1.4036937.

A novel tetrachiral and antitetrachiral hybrid metastructure is proposed, and its in-plane mechanical properties are studied through strain energy analysis. Based on rigid ring rotation assumption, the analytical expression for the in-plane modulus of anisotropic tetrachiral and antitetrachiral hybrid metastructure is derived, and in-plane tensile experimental test and finite element simulation are performed and compared with the theoretical models. The corresponding in-plane anisotropic mechanical properties can be tuned with three independent dimensionless geometrical parameters, and effects of dimensionless geometrical parameters on the in-plane mechanical properties are studied systematically. Finally, an innovative tetrachiral and antitetrachiral hybrid metastructure stent is designed, and its mechanical behaviors under uniaxial tensile loading are investigated. It is found that the designed tetrachiral and antitetrachiral hybrid stent shows negative Poisson ratio properties, and the axial and circumferential deformation can be controlled through adjusting the spacing of unit cell along axial and circumferential directions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Appl. Mech. 2017;84(8):081008-081008-12. doi:10.1115/1.4036941.

In the present work, a new approach for designing graded lattice structures is developed under the moving morphable components/voids (MMC/MMV) topology optimization framework. The essential idea is to make a coordinate perturbation to the topology description functions (TDF) that are employed for the description of component/void geometries in the design domain. Then, the optimal graded structure design can be obtained by optimizing the coefficients in the perturbed basis functions. Our numerical examples show that the proposed approach enables a concurrent optimization of both the primitive cell and the graded material distribution in a straightforward and computationally effective way. Moreover, the proposed approach also shows its potential in finding the optimal configuration of complex graded lattice structures with a very small number of design variables employed under various loading conditions and coordinate systems.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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