Research Papers

Mode I and II Interlaminar Fracture in Laminated Composites: A Size Effect Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Marco Salviato

William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
University of Washington,
Seattle, WA 98195
e-mail: salviato@aa.washington.edu

Kedar Kirane

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stony Brook University,
Stony Brook, NY 11794
e-mail: kedar.kirane@stonybrook.edu

Zdeněk P. Bažant

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Northwestern University,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: z-bazant@northwestern.edu

Gianluca Cusatis

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Northwestern University,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: g-cusatis@northwestern.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Applied Mechanics. Manuscript received April 28, 2019; final manuscript received May 24, 2019; published online June 27, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 86(9), 091008 (Jun 27, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: JAM-19-1213; doi: 10.1115/1.4043889 History: Received April 28, 2019; Accepted May 25, 2019

This work investigates the mode I and II interlaminar fracturing behavior of laminated composites and the related size effects. Fracture tests on geometrically scaled double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) specimens were conducted. The results show a significant difference between the mode I and mode II fracturing behaviors. The strength of the DCB specimens scales according to the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), whereas ENF specimens show a different behavior. For ENF tests, small specimens exhibit a pronounced pseudoductility. In contrast, larger specimens behave in a more brittle way, with the size effect on nominal strength closer to that predicted by LEFM. This transition from quasi-ductile to brittle behavior is associated with the size of the fracture process zone (FPZ), which is not negligible compared with the specimen size. For the size range investigated in this study, the nonlinear effects of the FPZ can lead to an underestimation of the fracture energy by as much as 55%. Both the mode I and II test data can be captured very accurately by the Bažant’s type II size effect law (SEL).

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Fig. 1

Geometry of the double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens under study

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Fig. 2

Geometry of the end notch flexure (ENF) specimens under study

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Fig. 3

Typical load–displacement curves of geometrically scaled specimens showing decreasing nonlinearity for increasing specimen dimensions: (a) DCB and (b) ENF specimens

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Fig. 4

(a) Schematic representation of the damage mechanisms in the FPZ of a mode II interlaminar crack leading to the emergence of nonlinear cohesive shear stresses and (b) schematic illustration of the snap-back instability affecting the ENF tests

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Fig. 5

Schematic representation of the linear finite element model for the calculation of g(α) and g′(α) and typical maximum principal strain fields: (a) DBC and (b) ENF specimens

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Fig. 6

Size effect study: (a) linear regression analysis to characterize the size effect parameters and (b) size effect plot in mode I interlaminar fracture

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Fig. 7

Size effect study: (a) linear regression analysis to characterize the size effect parameters and (b) size effect plot in mode II interlaminar fracture

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Fig. 8

Simulations by means of a cohesive zone model (CZM) with a linear traction-separation law. The mode I fracture energy used as input is estimated by means of size effect law (SEL)

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Fig. 9

Simulations by means of a cohesive zone model (CZM) with a linear traction-separation law. The mode II fracture energy used as input is estimated by means of size effect law (SEL)



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