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Research Papers

Improving the Energy Absorption of Cruciform With Large Global Slenderness Ratio by Kirigami Approach and Welding Technology

[+] Author and Article Information
Caihua Zhou

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment,
Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Mechanical Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China;
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: zhoucaihua@dlut.edu.cn

Tong Li

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment,
Department of Engineering Mechanics,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China;
Research Institute of Dalian University of Technology in Shenzhen,
Shenzhen 518101, China
e-mail: tong@dlut.edu.cn

Shizhao Ming

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment,
Department of Engineering Mechanics,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: msz19940110@163.com

Zhibo Song

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment,
Department of Engineering Mechanics,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: songzhibo@mail.dlut.edu.cn

Bo Wang

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment,
Department of Engineering Mechanics,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: wangbo@dlut.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Applied Mechanics. Manuscript received March 8, 2019; final manuscript received April 23, 2019; published online May 13, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Haleh Ardebili.

J. Appl. Mech 86(8), 081004 (May 13, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: JAM-19-1110; doi: 10.1115/1.4043616 History: Received March 08, 2019; Accepted April 23, 2019

Conventional energy absorber usually employs stubby thin-walled structures. Compared with the limited number of stubby thin-walled structures, an equipment has a large number of slender thin-walled structures that has the potential to be used for energy absorption purpose as well. Therefore, improving the energy absorption capacity of these slender thin-walled structures can significantly benefit the crashworthiness of the equipment. However, these slender structures are inclined to deform in Euler buckling mode, which greatly limits their application for energy absorption. In this paper, kirigami approach combined with welding technology is adopted to avoid the Euler buckling mode of a slender cruciform. Both finite element simulations and experiments demonstrated that the proposed approach can trigger a desirable progressive collapse mode and thus improve the energy absorption by around 155.22%, compared with the conventional cruciform. Furthermore, parametric studies related to the kirigami pattern and global slenderness ratio (GSR) are conducted to investigate the improvement of this proposed approach on the energy absorption and the maximum critical value of GSR.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The application of thin-walled structures with larger GSR in the frame structures of (a) automobile, (b) aircraft, and (c) lunar lander

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Fig. 2

Schematic and assembly of a representative KWC: (a) the geometry of kirigami pattern used to construct a KWC, (b) the assembly process of a KWC, (c) the geometry of a KWC, and (d) the geometry and location of welding lines

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Fig. 3

Typical finite element models for (a) CC and (b) KWC

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Fig. 4

True stress–strain curve

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Fig. 5

The energy absorption of conventional cruciform: (a) mean crushing force versus slenderness ratio curve, (b) the comparison of PEEQ maps between two typical cruciforms (i.e., GSR = a/b = 4 and 5.75) deforming in bending mode and Euler buckling mode, and (c) the crushed configurations of those two typical cruciforms

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Fig. 6

(a) A CC and KWC with imperfection, (b) manufacture process of those specimens, and (c) laser welding machine

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Fig. 7

Experimental setup

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Fig. 8

Comparison of collapse modes between experimental and numerical results: (a) CC and (b) KWC

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Fig. 9

Comparison of crushing process between experimental and numerical results: (a) CC-1 and (b) KWC-1

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Fig. 10

Comparison of crushing force curves between experimental and numerical results: (a) CC and (b) KWC

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Fig. 11

Comparison between CC and KWC: (a) crushing process shown by FEA, (b) crushing process shown by simplified schematic, (c) PEEQ maps, and (d) crushing force curves

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Fig. 12

The results on the relative length of kirigami pattern lk/a: (a) normalized mean crushing force versus relative length of kirigami pattern curve, (b) relative crushing distances of MM and BM changes with relative length of kirigami pattern obtained from theoretical and numerical analyses, and (c) crushing process of KWC with lk/a = 0.22 presented by numerical analysis and simplified schematic

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Fig. 13

The results on the relative width of kirigami pattern b/t: (a) normalized mean crushing force versus relative length of kirigami pattern curve and (b) collapse modes and PEEQ maps of CC with b/t = 25 and KWC with b/t = 8 in case 1

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Fig. 14

The results on GSR: (a) normalized mean crushing force versus GSR (a/b) curves, (b) crushing force versus relative crushing distance curves for GSR = 13.25 and 13.5 in case 3, (c) crushing force versus relative crushing distance curves for GSR = 6.5 and 6.75 in case 4, (d) crushing force versus relative crushing distance curves for GSR = 14.5 and 14.75 in case 4, (e) collapse mode of KWC with GSR = 13.5 in case 3, and (f) collapse modes of KWCs with GSR = 6.75 and 14.75 in case 4

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