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Research Papers

Adhesive Joint Model for Delamination Analysis of a Co-Cured Composite Joint: Applicability and Limitation

[+] Author and Article Information
C. N. Duong

The Boeing Company,
5301 Bolsa Avenue, MC H020-F113,
Huntington Beach, CA 92647-2099
e-mail: cong.n.duong@boeing.com

Manuscript received December 3, 2018; final manuscript received February 13, 2019; published online March 5, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Shengping Shen.

J. Appl. Mech 86(5), 051006 (Mar 05, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: JAM-18-1684; doi: 10.1115/1.4042893 History: Received December 03, 2018; Accepted February 13, 2019

Modeling the interface between two adherents in a co-cured composite joint for a delamination analysis is always a challenge since properties and thickness of the material forming the interface are not clearly defined or well characterized. In a conventional finite element (FE) analysis using virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) based on a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory, adherents are assigned to share the same common nodes along their intact interface. On the other hand, an FE analysis using cohesive elements or analytical methods based on an adhesive joint model for a delamination analysis of a co-cured joint will require modeling of the interface as well as the appropriate selection of its thickness and properties. The purpose of this paper is to establish the applicability and limitation of the adhesive joint model for a delamination analysis of a co-cured composite joint. In particular, it will show that when certain requirements are met, the strain energy release rates (SERR) become independent or nearly independent of the adhesive stiffness and thickness, and thus, SERR of an adhesive joint will be the same as that for a co-cured joint. These requirements are determined from a theoretical consideration, and they can be expressed explicitly in terms of joint characteristic (or load transfer) lengths and joint physical lengths. The established requirements are further validated by numerical results for various cracked joint geometries. Finally, implication of a mode ratio obtained by the proposed adhesive joint model for a corresponding delamination crack is discussed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Geometries and boundary conditions of tapered joints and doublers considered in the present analyses: (a) a one-sided doubler, (b) a two-sided doubler, (c) a T-joint under pull-off (vertical) load, (d) a T-joint under a combined pull-off and tension, (e) a single-lap joint, (f) a double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen, and for simplicity (g) an end-notched flexure (ENF) type specimen

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Fig. 2

Geometry of double-sided doubler under tension

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Fig. 3

Geometry of a one-sided doubler under an out-of-plane bending moment

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Fig. 4

Free-body diagram of the crack tip region surrounding the joint load transfer zones at the crack tip. Adhesive shear stress distribution will result in an equivalent force Nc while the adhesive peel stress distribution will result in an equivalent force Qc and an equivalent moment Mc acting at the middle of the load transfer zones.

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Fig. 5

Schematic diagrams for determining the signs of ΔN2 and ΔM2 across the crack tip of an edge delamination in an unbalanced single-lap joint

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Fig. 6

Schematic diagrams for determining the signs of ΔN1 and ΔM1 across the tip of a noodle crack in a T-joint

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Fig. 7

Results of strain energy release rates for a one-sided doubler joint under tension with an edge delamination crack as a function of the adhesive modulus Ea

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Fig. 8

Results of GI for a DCB configuration as a function of the adhesive modulus Ea

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Fig. 9

Results of GI for a DCB configuration as a function of the ratio of crack length to the load transfer length ρa

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Fig. 10

Results of strain energy release rates for a noodle crack in a T-joint under a vertical pull-off load as a function of the ratio of crack length to the load transfer length ρa

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Fig. 11

Results of strain energy release rates for an edge delamination crack in a T-joint under a vertical pull-off load as a function of the ratio of (a + L1) to the load transfer length ρ(a + L1)

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