Research Papers

An Innovative Approach of Using Continuous Impedance-Graded Metallic Composite System for Attenuation of Stress Waves

[+] Author and Article Information
P. L. N. Fernando

School of Civil Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and IT,
The University of Sydney,
Darlington, NSW 2006, Australia
e-mail: paththige.fernando@sydney.edu.au

Damith Mohotti

School of Civil Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and IT,
The University of Sydney,
Darlington, NSW 2006, Australia
e-mail: damith.mohotti@sydney.edu.au

Alex Remennikov

Centre for Infrastructure Protection and Mining Safety,
University of Wollongong,
Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
e-mail: alexrem@uow.edu.au

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Applied Mechanics. Manuscript received December 5, 2018; final manuscript received January 25, 2019; published online March 16, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Shengping Shen.

J. Appl. Mech 86(6), 061002 (Mar 16, 2019) (15 pages) Paper No: JAM-18-1692; doi: 10.1115/1.4042681 History: Received December 05, 2018; Accepted January 25, 2019

This paper presents an innovative approach of stress attenuation through a continuous impedance-graded material system for high strain-rate events. High energetic dynamic events such as blasts and impact could cause stress waves—in the form of elastic, plastic, and shock—to propagate in a solid material. An impedance-graded composite is created by arranging different metallic alloys in the reducing order of their impedance through the system. Impedance, which is the product of volumetric mass density and wave velocity, is chosen as the function as it plays a governing role in elastic, plastic, and shock waves. An analytical framework to quantify the stress wave propagation through an impedance-graded multimaterial system is developed based on the principles of shock and elastic wave theories. The numerical simulations carried out using nonlinear finite element code, LS-DYNA, were able to capture and quantify the elastic, plastic, and shock waves and their reflections at different interfaces. It was identified that the final transmitted stress wave, which could comprise elastic, plastic, and shock waves, as well as the reflected tensile elastic wave at each material interface, needs to be controlled in order to develop a robust multimaterial system.

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Fig. 1

Propagation of stress waves through a multimaterial system

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Fig. 2

Stress–strain curve for material undergoing uniaxial strain conditions

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Fig. 3

Shape of a typical shock wave

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Fig. 4

Forces acting on an element

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Fig. 5

The propagation of the incident, transmitted, and reflected waves

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Fig. 6

The generation of plastic waves due to an incident (a) elastic wave and (b) elastic wave and plastic wave for one-directional wave propagation

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Fig. 7

P-up Hugoniot for right-going (curve A) and left-going (curve B) shock waves

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Fig. 8

P-up Hugoniot for a material with negligible strength (curve A) and a material with strength (curve B)

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Fig. 9

Numerical models for (a) one- and (b) two-directional wave propagations

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Fig. 10

Propagation of stress waves through (a) monolithic and (b) composite configurations. The arrows in these figures illustrate only the direction of the wave propagation and therefore must not be read as a vector representation.

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Fig. 11

Sequential captures of stress waves from numerical simulations for a two-dimensional wave propagation

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Fig. 12

Stress–time plots identifying (a) elastic and plastic waves and (b) shock waves

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Fig. 13

Relevant uniaxial stress–strain curves for (a) C1, (b) C2, and (c) C3

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Fig. 14

Stress–time plots from numerical simulations for (a) C1, (b) C2, and (c) C3

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Fig. 15

Magnitude of (a) transmitted and (b) reflected stresses for each configuration at each material interface

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Fig. 16

P-up Hugoniot for the principal shock wave generated at the interface of (a) flyer and material 1, (b) material 1 and material 2, and (c) material 2 and material 3

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Fig. 17

Analytical results of shock wave propagation for (a) C1, (b) C2, and (c) C3

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Fig. 18

Magnitude of shock waves in each material

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Fig. 19

(a) Scenarios with different combinations of impedance reduction, (b) variation of transmitted stress, and (c) variation of tensile stresses. Flyer, target, and structure are not drawn to scale.

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Fig. 20

Numerical model for the SHPB test setup

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Fig. 21

Stress–time history plots for the (a) incident bar, (b) C2, (c) C3, and (d) transmitter bar



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