0
Research Papers

Modeling the Large Deformation and Microstructure Evolution of Nonwoven Polymer Fiber Networks

[+] Author and Article Information
Mang Zhang, Fu-pen Chiang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
State University of New York at Stony Brook,
Stony Brook, NY 11794

Yuli Chen

Institute of Solid Mechanics,
Beihang University (BUAA),
Beijing 100191, China

Pelagia Irene Gouma

Department of Materials
Science and Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210

Lifeng Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
State University of New York at Stony Brook,
Stony Brook, NY 11794
e-mail: Lifeng.wang@stonybrook.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received July 11, 2018; final manuscript received October 1, 2018; published online November 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Haleh Ardebili.

J. Appl. Mech 86(1), 011010 (Nov 02, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: JAM-18-1400; doi: 10.1115/1.4041677 History: Received July 11, 2018; Revised October 01, 2018

The electrospinning process enables the fabrication of randomly distributed nonwoven polymer fiber networks with high surface area and high porosity, making them ideal candidates for multifunctional materials. The mechanics of nonwoven networks has been well established for elastic deformations. However, the mechanical properties of the polymer fibrous networks with large deformation are largely unexplored, while understanding their elastic and plastic mechanical properties at different fiber volume fractions, fiber aspect ratio, and constituent material properties is essential in the design of various polymer fibrous networks. In this paper, a representative volume element (RVE) based finite element model with long fibers is developed to emulate the randomly distributed nonwoven fibrous network microstructure, enabling us to systematically investigate the mechanics and large deformation behavior of random nonwoven networks. The results show that the network volume fraction, the fiber aspect ratio, and the fiber curliness have significant influences on the effective stiffness, effective yield strength, and the postyield behavior of the resulting fiber mats under both tension and shear loads. This study reveals the relation between the macroscopic mechanical behavior and the local randomly distributed network microstructure deformation mechanism of the nonwoven fiber network. The model presented here can also be applied to capture the mechanical behavior of other complex nonwoven network systems, like carbon nanotube networks, biological tissues, and artificial engineering networks.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Chen, F. J. , Porter, D. , and Vollrath, F. , 2012, “ Morphology and Structure of Silkworm Cocoons,” Mat. Sci. Eng. C-Mater., 32(4), pp. 772–778. [CrossRef]
Camelliti, P. , Borg, T. K. , and Kohl, P. , 2005, “ Structural and Functional Characterisation of Cardiac Fibroblasts,” Cardiovasc. Res., 65(1), pp. 40–51. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Snow, E. S. , Novak, J. P. , Campbell, P. M. , and Park, D. , 2003, “ Random Networks of Carbon Nanotubes as an Electronic Material,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82(13), pp. 2145–2147. [CrossRef]
El-Kharouf, A. , Mason, T. J. , Brett, D. J. L. , and Pollet, B. G. , 2012, “ Ex-Situ Characterisation of Gas Diffusion Layers for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells,” J. Power Sources, 218, pp. 393–404. [CrossRef]
Henriksson, M. , Berglund, L. A. , Isaksson, P. , Lindstrom, T. , and Nishino, T. , 2008, “ Cellulose Nanopaper Structures of High Toughness,” Biomacromolecules, 9(6), pp. 1579–1585. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Li, D. , and Xia, Y. N. , 2004, “ Electrospinning of Nanofibers: Reinventing the Wheel?,” Adv. Mater., 16(14), pp. 1151–1170. [CrossRef]
Khil, M. S. , Cha, D. I. , Kim, H. Y. , Kim, I. S. , and Bhattarai, N. , 2003, “ Electrospun Nanofibrous Polyurethane Membrane as Wound Dressing,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B: Appl. Biomater., 67(2), pp. 675–679. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gopal, R. , Kaur, S. , Ma, Z. , Chan, C. , Ramakrishna, S. , and Matsuura, T. , 2006, “ Electrospun Nanofibrous Filtration Membrane,” J. Membr. Sci., 281(1–2), pp. 581–586. [CrossRef]
Zamani, M. , Prabhakaran, M. P. , and Ramakrishna, S. , 2013, “ Advances in Drug Delivery Via Electrospun and Electrosprayed Nanomaterials,” Int. J. Nanomed., 8, p. 2997.
Dai, Y. , Liu, W. , Formo, E. , Sun, Y. , and Xia, Y. , 2011, “ Ceramic Nanofibers Fabricated by Electrospinning and Their Applications in Catalysis, Environmental Science, and Energy Technology,” Polym. Adv. Technol., 22(3), pp. 326–338. [CrossRef]
Pai, C. L. , Boyce, M. C. , and Rutledge, G. C. , 2011, “ On the Importance of Fiber Curvature to the Elastic Moduli of Electrospun Nonwoven Fiber Meshes,” Polymer, 52(26), pp. 6126–6133. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , Pai, C.-L. , Boyce, M. C. , and Rutledge, G. C. , 2009, “ Wrinkled Surface Topographies of Electrospun Polymer Fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 94(15), p. 151916. [CrossRef]
Huang, Z.-M. , Zhang, Y.-Z. , Kotaki, M. , and Ramakrishna, S. , 2003, “ A Review on Polymer Nanofibers by Electrospinning and Their Applications in Nanocomposites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 63(15), pp. 2223–2253. [CrossRef]
Stylianopoulos, T. , Bashur, C. A. , Goldstein, A. S. , Guelcher, S. A. , and Barocas, V. H. , 2008, “ Computational Predictions of the Tensile Properties of Electrospun Fibre Meshes: Effect of Fibre Diameter and Fibre Orientation,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 1(4), pp. 326–335. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Nasouri, K. , Bahrambeygi, H. , Rabbi, A. , Shoushtari, A. M. , and Kaflou, A. , 2012, “ Modeling and Optimization of Electrospun PAN Nanofiber Diameter Using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Networks,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 126(1), pp. 127–135. [CrossRef]
Rodney, D. , Gadot, B. , Martinez, O. R. , du Roscoat, S. R. , and Orgeas, L. , 2016, “ Reversible Dilatancy in Entangled Single-Wire Materials,” Nat. Mater., 15(1), pp. 72–77. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Picu, R. C. , 2011, “ Mechanics of Random Fiber Networks: A Review,” Soft Matter, 7(15), pp. 6768–6785. [CrossRef]
Chaudhuri, O. , Parekh, S. H. , and Fletcher, D. A. , 2007, “ Reversible Stress Softening of Actin Networks,” Nature, 445(7125), pp. 295–298. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ridruejo, A. , González, C. , and LLorca, J. , 2011, “ Micromechanisms of Deformation and Fracture of Polypropylene Nonwoven Fabrics,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 48(1), pp. 153–162. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y. , Ridruejo, A. , González, C. , Llorca, J. , and Siegmund, T. , 2016, “ Notch Effect in Failure of Fiberglass Non-Woven Materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 96, pp. 254–264. [CrossRef]
Ceretti, E. , Ginestra, P. S. , Ghazinejad, M. , Fiorentino, A. , and Madou, M. , 2017, “ Electrospinning and Characterization of Polymer–Graphene Powder Scaffolds,” CIRP Ann., 66(1), pp. 233–236. [CrossRef]
Choi, W. , Lee, S. , Kim, S. H. , and Jang, J. H. , 2016, “ Polydopamine Inter‐Fiber Networks: New Strategy for Producing Rigid, Sticky, 3D Fluffy Electrospun Fibrous Polycaprolactone Sponges,” Macromol. Biosci., 16(6), pp. 824–835. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zussman, E. , Burman, M. , Yarin, A. , Khalfin, R. , and Cohen, Y. , 2006, “ Tensile Deformation of Electrospun Nylon‐6, 6 Nanofibers,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 44(10), pp. 1482–1489. [CrossRef]
Maksimcuka, J. , Obata, A. , Sampson, W. W. , Blanc, R. , Gao, C. , Withers, P. J. , Tsigkou, O. , Kasuga, T. , Lee, P. D. , and Poologasundarampillai, G. , 2017, “ X-Ray Tomographic Imaging of Tensile Deformation Modes of Electrospun Biodegradable Polyester Fibres,” Front. Mater., 4, p.43. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X. , and Chase, G. G. , 2016, “ Electrospun Elastic Acrylonitrile Butadiene Copolymer Fibers,” Polymer, 97, pp. 440–448. [CrossRef]
Li, W. J. , Laurencin, C. T. , Caterson, E. J. , Tuan, R. S. , and Ko, F. K. , 2002, “ Electrospun Nanofibrous Structure: A Novel Scaffold for Tissue Engineering,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A, 60(4), pp. 613–621. [CrossRef]
Yin, Y. , Pan, Z. , and Xiong, J. , 2018, “ A Tensile Constitutive Relationship and a Finite Element Model of Electrospun Nanofibrous Mats,” Nanomaterials, 8(1), p. 29. [CrossRef]
Stylianopoulos, T. , Kokonou, M. , Michael, S. , Tryfonos, A. , Rebholz, C. , Odysseos, A. D. , and Doumanidis, C. , 2012, “ Tensile Mechanical Properties and Hydraulic Permeabilities of Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Fiber Meshes,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B: Appl. Biomater., 100(8), pp. 2222–2230. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kumar, V. , and Rawal, A. , 2017, “ Elastic Moduli of Electrospun Mats: Importance of Fiber Curvature and Specimen Dimensions,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 72, pp. 6–13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ban, E. , Barocas, V. H. , Shephard, M. S. , and Picu, C. R. , 2016, “ Effect of Fiber Crimp on the Elasticity of Random Fiber Networks With and Without Embedding Matrices,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 83(4), p. 041008. [CrossRef]
Wang, C. , Wang, L. F. , and Xu, Z. P. , 2013, “ Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Networks by Mobile and Discrete Binders,” Carbon, 64, pp. 237–244. [CrossRef]
Wang, C. , Xie, B. , Liu, Y. L. , and Xu, Z. P. , 2012, “ Mechanotunable Microstructures of Carbon Nanotube Networks,” Acs Macro. Lett., 1(10), pp. 1176–1179. [CrossRef]
Wei, X. , Xia, Z. , Wong, S.-C. , and Baji, A. , 2009, “ Modelling of Mechanical Properties of Electrospun Nanofibre Network,” Int. J. Exp. Comput. Biomech., 1(1), pp. 45–57. [CrossRef]
Gasser, T. C. , Ogden, R. W. , and Holzapfel, G. A. , 2006, “ Hyperelastic Modelling of Arterial Layers With Distributed Collagen Fibre Orientations,” J. R. Soc., Interface, 3(6), pp. 15–35. [CrossRef]
Silberstein, M. N. , Pai, C. L. , Rutledge, G. C. , and Boyce, M. C. , 2012, “ Elastic-Plastic Behavior of Non-Woven Fibrous Mats,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 60(2), pp. 295–318. [CrossRef]
Planas, J. , Guinea, G. , and Elices, M. , 2007, “ Constitutive Model for Fiber-Reinforced Materials With Deformable Matrices,” Phys. Rev. E, 76(Pt 1), p. 041903. [CrossRef]
Stylianopoulos, T. , and Barocas, V. H. , 2007, “ Volume-Averaging Theory for the Study of the Mechanics of Collagen Networks,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 196(31–32), pp. 2981–2990. [CrossRef]
Stylianopoulos, T. , and Barocas, V. H. , 2007, “ Multiscale, Structure-Based Modeling for the Elastic Mechanical Behavior of Arterial Walls,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 129(4), pp. 611–618. [CrossRef]
Shahsavari, A. S. , and Picu, R. C. , 2013, “ Size Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Random Fiber Networks,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 50(20–21), pp. 3332–3338. [CrossRef]
Berkache, K. , Deogekar, S. , Goda, I. , Picu, R. , and Ganghoffer, J.-F. , 2017, “ Construction of Second Gradient Continuum Models for Random Fibrous Networks and Analysis of Size Effects,” Compos. Struct., 181, pp. 347–357. [CrossRef]
Pan, F. , Chen, Y. L. , and Qin, Q. H. , 2016, “ Stiffness Thresholds of Buckypapers Under Arbitrary Loads,” Mech. Mater., 96, pp. 151–168. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y. L. , Pan, F. , Guo, Z. Y. , Liu, B. , and Zhang, J. Y. , 2015, “ Stiffness Threshold of Randomly Distributed Carbon Nanotube Networks,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 84, pp. 395–423. [CrossRef]
Zündel, M. , Mazza, E. , and Ehret, A. E. , 2017, “ A 2.5 D Approach to the Mechanics of Electrospun Fibre Mats,” Soft Matter, 13(37), pp. 6407–6421. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lu, Z. X. , Yuan, Z. S. , and Liu, Q. , 2014, “ 3D Numerical Simulation for the Elastic Properties of Random Fiber Composites With a Wide Range of Fiber Aspect Ratios,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 90, pp. 123–129. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , Lu, Z. , Yang, Z. , Zhang, D. , Shi, J. , Yuan, Z. , and Liu, Q. , 2017, “ Compression Behaviors of Carbon-Bonded Carbon Fiber Composites: Experimental and Numerical Investigations,” Carbon, 116, pp. 398–408. [CrossRef]
Islam, M. , Tudryn, G. J. , and Picu, C. R. , 2016, “ Microstructure Modeling of Random Composites With Cylindrical Inclusions Having High Volume Fraction and Broad Aspect Ratio Distribution,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 125, pp. 309–318. [CrossRef]
Islam, M. , and Picu, R. , 2018, “ Effect of Network Architecture on the Mechanical Behavior of Random Fiber Networks,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 85(8), p. 081011. [CrossRef]
Ostoja-Starzewski, M. , 2007, Microstructural Randomness and Scaling in Mechanics of Materials, Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL.
Ostoja-Starzewski, M. , 2005, “ Scale Effects in Plasticity of Random Media: Status and Challenges,” Int. J. Plasticity, 21(6), pp. 1119–1160. [CrossRef]
Beachley, V. , and Wen, X. , 2009, “ Effect of Electrospinning Parameters on the Nanofiber Diameter and Length,” Mater. Sci. Eng.: C, 29(3), pp. 663–668. [CrossRef]
Deogekar, S. , and Picu, R. , 2018, “ On the Strength of Random Fiber Networks,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 116, pp. 1–16. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. F. , Boyce, M. C. , Wen, C. Y. , and Thomas, E. L. , 2009, “ Plastic Dissipation Mechanisms in Periodic Microframe-Structured Polymers,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 19(9), pp. 1343–1350. [CrossRef]
Danielsson, M. , Parks, D. M. , and Boyce, M. C. , 2007, “ Micromechanics, Macromechanics and Constitutive Modeling of the Elasto-Viscoplastic Deformation of Rubber-Toughened Glassy Polymers,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 55(3), pp. 533–561. [CrossRef]
Head, D. A. , Levine, A. J. , and MacKintosh, F. C. , 2003, “ Distinct Regimes of Elastic Response and Deformation Modes of Cross-Linked Cytoskeletal and Semiflexible Polymer Networks,” Phys. Rev. E, 68(6), p. 061907. [CrossRef]
van Oosten, A. S. G. , Vahabi, M. , Licup, A. J. , Sharma, A. , Galie, P. A. , MacKintosh, F. C. , and Janmey, P. A. , 2016, “ Uncoupling Shear and Uniaxial Elastic Moduli of Semiflexible Biopolymer Networks: Compression-Softening and Stretch-Stiffening,” Sci. Rep., 6, p. 19270. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Buxton, G. A. , and Clarke, N. , 2007, “ ‘Bending to Stretching’ Transition Disordered Networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 98(23), p. 238103. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Onck, P. , Koeman, T. , Van Dillen, T. , and van der Giessen, E. , 2005, “ Alternative Explanation of Stiffening in Cross-Linked Semiflexible Networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 95(17), p. 178102. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A spatially periodic RVE: (a) the undeformed RVE and (b) the deformed RVE with three of its periodic neighbors. The periodic points A and B have reference coordinates X(A) and X(B).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Randomly distributed nonwoven polymer fiber networks: (a) representative SEM image of an electrospun PA6(3)T network (courtesy of Chia-Ling Pai) and (b)–(f) five RVE models generated with same fibers and geometries but by five different random routines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Mechanical response of the random nonwoven fibrous network under uniaxial tensile loading where N = 40 and l = 0.4 mm: (a) effective stress versus effective strain, (b) effective transverse strain versus effective axial strain showing a nonlinear behavior with ratio greater than 1 after 0.05 effective strain, (c) average network porosity change during loading, and (d) von Mises stress contour for A, B, C, and D points marked in (a), respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a)–(f) Typical local deformation mechanisms of microstructure evolution in the fibrous network RVE under tensile loading and (g) original network microstructure and deformed network microstructure with highlights of six typical deformation mechanisms, where N = 60 and l = 0.6 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Mechanical response of the random nonwoven fibrous network under cyclic uniaxial tensile loading (N = 40 and l = 0.4 mm): (a) the stress–strain curve, (b) evolution of the normalized Young's modulus for reloading after each uniaxial tensile cycle, and (c) von Mises stress contour for the initial network, as well as B, C, and D points marked in (a), which are the relaxed networks after the first, third, and fifth cycles, respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The RVE size effect and boundary condition effect on the network Young's modulus

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Mechanical response of random nonwoven fibrous networks with different fiber aspect ratios under uniaxial tensile loading (fv = 14.14% and 18.85%): (a) effect of fiber aspect ratio on the stress–strain curves for fv = 14.14%, (b) effect of fiber aspect ratio on the transverse strain for fv = 14.14%, (c) effect of fiber aspect ratio on the stress–strain curves for fv = 18.85%, (d) effect of fiber aspect ratio on the transverse strain for fv = 18.85%, and (e) and (f) the initial network microstructure for fiber aspect ratio λ = 500, 333, and 167, while fv = 14.14% and 18.85%, respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) Normalized Young's modulus of the network as a function of fiber aspect ratio and (b) normalized yield stress of the network as a function of fiber aspect ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Mechanical response of random nonwoven fibrous networks with different fiber aspect ratios under uniaxial tensile loading: (a) the stress–strain curves with fiber radians of 0, 0.4, and 0.8, (b) the effective transverse strain, and (c) the schematic diagram of fibrous networks with different fiber radian α

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Mechanical response of the random nonwoven fibrous network under simple shear loading (l = 0.5 mm, N = 72 and 48): (a) the initial network geometry for RVEs with fv= 18.85% and fv= 14.14%, (b) the shear stress–strain response of the two RVEs under simple shear, and (c) the corresponding deformed configurations with von Mises stress distribution at different levels of shear strain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mechanical response of random nonwoven fibrous networks with different volume fractions under uniaxial tensile loading (fv varies from 9.42% to 23.56%): (a) effect of volume fraction on the stress–strain curves, (b) effect of volume fraction on the transverse strain, and (c) the corresponding microstructures and von Mises stress distribution for six points marked in (a)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Normalized Young's modulus of networks with different fiber volume fractions of present simulation and other experimental results [2628,35] and (b) the normalized yield stress of networks with different fiber volume fractions

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In