Research Papers

Closed-Form Solution of Road Roughness-Induced Vehicle Energy Dissipation

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Louhghalam

Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering,
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth,
Dartmouth, MA 02747

M. Tootkaboni

Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering,
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth,
Dartmouth, MA 02747
e-mail: mtootkaboni@umassd.edu

T. Igusa

Department of Civil Engineering,
Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, MD 21218

F. J. Ulm

Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 12, 2018; final manuscript received September 13, 2018; published online October 1, 2018. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 86(1), 011003 (Oct 01, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: JAM-18-1530; doi: 10.1115/1.4041500 History: Received September 12, 2018; Revised September 13, 2018

A major contributor to rolling resistance is road roughness-induced energy dissipation in vehicle suspension systems. We identify the parameters driving this dissipation via a combination of dimensional analysis and asymptotic analysis. We begin with a mechanistic model and basic random vibration theory to relate the statistics of road roughness profile and the dynamic properties of the vehicle to dissipated energy. Asymptotic analysis is then used to unravel the dependence of the dissipation on key vehicle and road characteristics. Finally, closed form expressions and scaling relations are developed that permit a straightforward application of the proposed road-vehicle interaction model for evaluating network-level environmental footprint associated with roughness-induced energy dissipation.

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Fig. 1

Quarter-Car model, and Golden-car properties (as explained in the text) adapted from Ref. [2]

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Fig. 2

An example of road roughness PSD in logarithmic scale with c = 0.38 × 10−6 and w = 2.14

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Fig. 3

Dimensionless energy dissipation for different values of damping ratio ζ. It is observed that dissipation is not sensitive to this parameter over the practical ranges of waviness number w: (a) k¯ = 50 and (b) k¯ = 250.

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Fig. 4

Probability distribution function of the waviness number; after Ref. [18]

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Fig. 5

Dimensionless energy dissipation (Π) versus road waviness number (w) for various values of k¯ and m¯; solid lines correspond to exact values and dashed lines correspond to perturbation results: (a) m¯ = 0.10, (b) m¯ = 0.15, (c) k¯ = 50, and (d) k¯ = 250

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Fig. 6

Percent error of perturbation results as a function of road waviness number (w) for various k¯ and m¯

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Fig. 7

Percent change in fuel consumption versus IRI for different vehicle classes and different driving speeds: (a) V = 60 km/h and (b) V = 100 km/h



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