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Research Papers

Experimentally Calibrated Abrasive Sliding Wear Model: Demonstrations for Rotary and Linear Wear Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiu Jia, Tomas Grejtak, Brandon Krick

Department of Mechanical Engineering
and Mechanics,
Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, PA 18015

Natasha Vermaak

Department of Mechanical Engineering
and Mechanics,
Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, PA 18015
e-mail: xij214@lehigh.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received August 10, 2018; final manuscript received September 12, 2018; published online October 1, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Junlan Wang.

J. Appl. Mech 85(12), 121011 (Oct 01, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: JAM-18-1471; doi: 10.1115/1.4041470 History: Received August 10, 2018; Revised September 12, 2018

Considerable effort has been made to model, predict, and mitigate wear as it has significant global impact on the environment, economy, and energy consumption. This work proposes generalized foundation-based wear models and a simulation procedure for single material and multimaterial composites subject to rotary or linear abrasive sliding wear. For the first time, experimental calibration of foundation parameters and asymmetry effects are included. An iterative wear simulation procedure is outlined that considers implicit boundary conditions to better reflect the response of the whole sample and counter-body system compared to existing models. Key features such as surface profile, corresponding contact pressure evolution, and material loss can be predicted. For calibration and validation, both rotary and linear wear tests are conducted on purpose-built tribometers. In particular, an experimental calibration procedure for foundation parameters is developed based on a Levenberg–Marquardt optimization algorithm. This procedure is valid for specific counter-body and wear systems using experimentally measured steady-state worn surface profiles. The calibrated foundation model is validated by a set of rotary wear tests on different bimaterial composite samples. The established efficient and accurate wear simulation framework is well suited for future design and optimization purposes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematics of the elastic Pasternak foundation model. (a) Indentation of worn sample into counter-body (elastic foundation). (b) Separate views of deformed counter-body and worn sample showing the contact region (Ωc), the noncontact region (Ωnc) on the deformed counter-body surface, and the worn sample surface region (D). (c) Graphical illustration of counter-body deformation (u), sample worn surface profile (z), and reference height (h).

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Fig. 2

Illustration of rotary and linear wear systems. Rotary wear system: (a) top view, and (b) side view. Linear wear system: (c) top view and (d) side view.

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Fig. 3

(a) Steady-state surface profile of a bimaterial composite system from Ref. [38] subject to linear abrasive sliding wear. (a-i) Numerical surface profile prediction from a symmetric Pasternak foundation-based linear wear model. (a-ii) Experimentally measured surface profile. (a-iii) Epoxy (dark color) and PEEK (light color) composite configuration. (b) Smoothed experimental surface profile from (a-ii) [38] shown in 3D [39]. Note the asymmetry in surface profile with respect to sliding and counter-sliding directions.

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Fig. 4

Schematic of tribometers used for wear tests. (a) Rotary tribometer. (b) Linear reciprocating tribometer.

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Fig. 5

Calibration procedure for foundation parameters

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Fig. 6

Calibration of foundation parameters using experimental data and validation of numerical simulations. (a) Three composite samples (cases 1–3); the left image is half of the experimental sample and the right image is half of the numerical simulation domain. (b) Calibration of foundation parameters using case 1. (c) Validation of calibrated foundation parameters using cases 2 and 3. Note that experimental data are shown with solid lines and numerical results with dashed lines.

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Fig. 7

Material removal histories of case 1–3: (a) Mass loss, (b) volume loss, and (c) errors of numerical predictions comparing experimental data

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Fig. 8

Case study: sample surface profile evolutions at selected cycles using the experimentally calibrated proposed and previous [37] simulation procedures

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Fig. 9

Case study for a linear wear system. (a) Composite sample under linear wear; the left image is half of the experimental sample and the right image is half of the numerical simulation domain. (b) Experimental steady-state surface profile. (c) Numerical steady-state surface profile. (d) Comparison of line-scans of experimental (solid lines) and numerical (dashed lines) steady-state surface profiles. Results for both sliding and counter-sliding directions are shown.

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