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Research Papers

A Computational Approach to Model Interfacial Effects on the Mechanical Behavior of Knitted Textiles

[+] Author and Article Information
Dani Liu

Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Group,
Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Mechanics,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104

Bahareh Shakibajahromi

Department of Computer Science,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104

Genevieve Dion

Shima Seiki Haute Tech Lab,
Design Department,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104;
Center for Functional Fabrics,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104

David Breen

Department of Computer Science,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104;
Center for Functional Fabrics,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104

Antonios Kontsos

Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Group,
Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Mechanics,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104
e-mail: antonios.kontsos@drexel.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received October 18, 2017; final manuscript received January 12, 2018; published online February 9, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Harold S. Park.

J. Appl. Mech 85(4), 041007 (Feb 09, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: JAM-17-1584; doi: 10.1115/1.4039046 History: Received October 18, 2017; Revised January 12, 2018

The mechanical behavior of knitted textiles is simulated using finite element analysis (FEA). Given the strong coupling between geometrical and physical aspects that affect the behavior of this type of engineering materials, there are several challenges associated with the development of computational tools capable of enabling physics-based predictions, while keeping the associated computational cost appropriate for use within design optimization processes. In this context, this paper investigates the relative contribution of a number of computational factors to both local and global mechanical behavior of knitted textiles. Specifically, different yarn-to-yarn interaction definitions in three-dimensional (3D) finite element models are compared to explore their relative influence on kinematic features of knitted textiles' mechanical behavior. The relative motion between yarns identified by direct numerical simulations (DNS) is then used to construct reduced order models (ROMs), which are shown to be computationally more efficient and providing comparable predictions of the mechanical performance of knitted textiles that include interfacial effects between yarns.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Initial unit cell: (a) before optimization with yarn interpenetration and (b) after optimization

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Fig. 2

Illustration of: (a) tie constraint and (b) contact/friction interactions

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Fig. 3

Contact interaction assignment in the 3 × 3 model for: (a) course tension and (b) wale tension

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Fig. 4

Two-dimensional honeycomb-type ROM obtained by linking contact zones in the undeformed DNS model

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Fig. 5

Approach to define the geometry of the 3D-ROM

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Fig. 6

Three-dimensional ROM definition with: (a) a 3 × 3 knit and (b) the points and directions where the springs were used to represent the interfacial interactions

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Fig. 7

(a) Evolution of number of contact zones and their associated area, (b) computed global reaction force as a function of applied strain in the course (x-axis) direction, and (c) contact area distribution in one unit cell of a 3 × 3 knit at 1: 0.05%, 2: 0.33%, 3: 0.45%, 4: 1.95% course strain

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Fig. 8

Global transverse contraction and out-of-plane motion driven by the interfacial forces (shown in the insert), resulting from the contact and friction between yarns

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Fig. 9

Comparison of reaction force (a) and maximum out-of-plane motion (b) under 5% course strain among tie constraint, hard contact/rough friction, and hard contact/isotropic friction interactions

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Fig. 10

(a) Local set of forces exerted in each yarn; deformation path observed for each yarn including, (b) combined rotation, and contraction, and (c) spin about the yarn's centerline

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Fig. 11

Effect of course spacing (a) and yarn diameter (b) on the out-of-plane motion of knitted textiles

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Fig. 12

(a) Degree-of-freedom increases exponentially with the domain size, especially for contact interaction and (b) Comparison between full DNS results and beam-to-beam contact model for course tension

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Fig. 13

Maximum principal stress flow in a basic 3 × 3 knit for course tension and wale tension

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Fig. 14

Contact area and reduced order geometric representation of a loop by connecting the contact areas and computing the MPS direction

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the reaction force versus strain curves for tie constraints in course direction (a) and wale direction (b); for hard contact with isotropic friction in course direction (c) and wale direction (d)

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Fig. 16

Comparison of out-of-plane motion contour under course tension for tie constraint ((a) and (b)) and hard contact with isotropic friction ((c) and (d))

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