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Research Papers

Two Possible Defect Growth Modes in Soft Solids

[+] Author and Article Information
Reza Pourmodheji

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The City College of New York,
New York, NY 10031
e-mail: rpourmodheji@ccny.cuny.edu

Shaoxing Qu

State Key Laboratory of Fluid
Power and Mechatronic,
Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and
Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province,
Department of Engineering Mechanics,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: squ@zju.edu.cn

Honghui Yu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The City College of New York,
New York, NY 10031
e-mail: yu@ccny.cuny.edu

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received October 6, 2017; final manuscript received December 9, 2017; published online December 26, 2017. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 85(3), 031001 (Dec 26, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: JAM-17-1562; doi: 10.1115/1.4038718 History: Received October 06, 2017; Revised December 09, 2017

Guided by the experimental observations in the literature, this paper discusses two possible modes of defect growth in soft solids for which the size-dependent fracture mechanics is not always applicable. One is omni-directional growth, in which the cavity expands irreversibly in all directions; and the other is localized cracking along a plane. A characteristic material length is introduced, which may shed light on the dominant growth mode for defects of different sizes. To help determine the associated material properties from experimental measurement, the driving force of defect growth as a function of the remote load is calculated for both modes accordingly. Consequently, one may relate the measured critical load to the critical driving force and eventually to the associated material parameters. For comprehensiveness, the calculations here cover a class of hyperelastic materials. As an application of the proposed hypothesis, the experimental results (Cristiano et al., 2010, “An Experimental Investigation of Fracture by Cavitation of Model Elastomeric Networks,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 48(13), pp. 1409–1422) from two polymers with long and short chain elastomeric network are examined. The two polymers seem to be susceptible to either of the two dominating modes, respectively. The results are interpreted, and the material characteristic length and other growth parameters are determined.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) A single defect inside a bulk under hydrostatic remote tension idealized as a spherical cavity, (b) the uniform growth, (c) the growth along edged cracks, and (d) contribution of each growth mode

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A schematic curve for critical hydrostatic tension versus defect size

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Remote hydrostatic tension versus the stretching ratio at the cavity. For Seitz et al. Jm = 20; Gent [36], Jlim = 74; Mooney [21], C1=0.85C, C2=0.15C; Gent and Thomas [34], C1=0.5C, C2=1.5C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Normalized driving force for omni-directional growth versus remote hydrostatic tension

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Fig. 4

Normalized driving force for the omni-directional growth versus the stretching ratio of the cavity

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Fig. 8

The normalized hydrostatic tension versus the defect size for PU8000 at different temperatures

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Fig. 6

The normalized driving force for crack growth versus the remote load, for a number of materials

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Fig. 7

The normalized driving force of growth for defects of different shape factor γ, in two materials

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