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Research Papers

Morphology of Voltage-Triggered Ordered Wrinkles of a Dielectric Elastomer Sheet

[+] Author and Article Information
Guoyong Mao, Lei Wu, Xueya Liang

State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and
Mechatronic System,
Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and
Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province,
Department of Engineering Mechanics,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China

Shaoxing Qu

State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and
Mechatronic System,
Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and
Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province,
Department of Engineering Mechanics,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: squ@zju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 23, 2017; final manuscript received August 28, 2017; published online September 15, 2017. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 84(11), 111005 (Sep 15, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: JAM-17-1336; doi: 10.1115/1.4037833 History: Received June 23, 2017; Revised August 28, 2017

Wrinkles widely existing in sheets and membranes have attracted a lot of attention in the fields of material science and engineering applications. In this paper, we present a new method to generate ordered (striplike) and steady wrinkles of a constrained dielectric elastomer (DE) sheet coated with soft electrodes on both sides subjected to high voltage. When the voltage reaches a certain value, wrinkles will nucleate and grow. We conduct both experimental and theoretical studies to investigate the wavelength and amplitude of the wrinkle. The results show a good agreement between theory and experiment. Moreover, the amplitude and wavelength of ordered wrinkles can be tuned by varying the prestretch and geometry of the DE sheet, as well as the applying voltage. This study can help future design of DE transducers such as diffraction grating and optical sensor.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of experimental setup and experimental results. (a) A DE sheet of length ls10 and width ls20 is stretched to ls21 with two ends boned to two rigid bars. Then, a solid frame is boned to the center of DE sheet and the part in the center of solid frame is cut off as DE specimen. (b) A DE specimen is coated with electrodes on both its sides. When voltage is applied, striplike ordered wrinkle nucleates. (c) The experimental setup for measuring the morphology of wrinkles. (d) Top-view images of flat and wrinkled DE specimen made of VHB 4905 when voltage (10 kV) is off and on. The dimensions of DE specimen are lf1=5 cm and lf2=10 cm with prestretch λ11=1.5. (e) The morphology of wrinkles of DE specimen in Fig. 1(d) with varying applying voltage measured by a laser displacement sensor.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The wavelength and amplitude of wrinkles of experimental results (symbols, ∗, Δ, and ○) and theoretical predictions (solid lines). (a) The relationship of dimensionless wrinkle wavelength versus the geometry of solid frame and prestretch for different DEs subjected to voltages. The slope of the solid line is 2.05. Dimensions and prestretches of DE specimens of the DE specimens are listed in supplementary material, which is available under the “Supplemental Materials” tab for this paper on the ASME Digital Collection. (b) The relationship of amplitude versus applying voltage for different DE materials, VHB 9473 (t0=0.25 mm), VHB 4905 (t0=0.5 mm) and VHB4910 (t0=1 mm). The dimensions of solid frame are lf1=lf2=10 cm, and the prestretch of DE sheet is λ11=1.5. (c) The relationship of amplitude versus applying voltage for different prestretches (λ11=1.5, 3, and 4) of DE sheets made of VHB 9473. The dimensions of solid frame are lf1=5 cm and lf2=10 cm. (d) The relationship of amplitude versus applying voltage for DE sheets made of VHB 4905 with different aspect ratios ls1/ls2=4/3, 6/3, and 12/3. The dimension of solid frame is lf1=lf2=10 cm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The schematic diagram of a smart window and experimental demonstration. (a) The structure of a smart window consists of a DE sheet sandwiched by saline water and packaged with transparent plastic. (b) The principle of smart switchable window. When voltage is off, light can pass through along its original direction. Otherwise, wrinkles nucleate and light will be refracted and deviated from its original direction. Then, the window will be obscure. (c) Demonstration of smart window with voltage off and on.

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