0
Research Papers

Tailorable Thermal Expansion of Lightweight and Robust Dual-Constituent Triangular Lattice Material

[+] Author and Article Information
Kai Wei

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design
and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: weikai@pku.edu.cn

Yong Peng

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design
and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: pengyong302@hnu.edu.cn

Weibin Wen

State Key Laboratory for Turbulence
and Complex Systems,
College of Engineering,
Peking University,
Beijing 100871, China
e-mail: wenwbin@126.com

Yongmao Pei

State Key Laboratory for Turbulence
and Complex Systems,
College of Engineering,
Peking University,
Beijing 100871, China
e-mail: peiym@pku.edu.cn

Daining Fang

Institute of Advanced Structure Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China e-mail: fangdn@pku.edu.cn

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received July 17, 2017; final manuscript received August 10, 2017; published online August 30, 2017. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 84(10), 101006 (Aug 30, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: JAM-17-1380; doi: 10.1115/1.4037589 History: Received July 17, 2017; Revised August 10, 2017

Current studies on tailoring the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of materials focused on either exploring the composition of the bulk material or the design of composites which strongly depend on a few negative CTE materials or fibers. In this work, an approach to achieve a wide range of tailorable CTEs through a dual-constituent triangular lattice material is studied. Theoretical analyses explicitly reveal that through rational arrangement of commonly available positive CTE constituents, tailorable CTEs, including negative, zero, and large positive CTEs can be easily achieved. We experimentally demonstrate this approach through CTE measurements of the specimens, which were exclusively fabricated from common alloys. The triangular lattice material fabricated from positive CTE alloys is shown to yield large positive (41.6 ppm/°C), near-zero (1.9 ppm/°C), and negative (−32.9 ppm/°C) CTEs. An analysis of the collapse strength and stiffness ensures the robust mechanical properties. Moreover, hierarchal triangular lattice material is proposed, and with certain constituents, wide range of tailorable CTEs can be easily obtained through the rationally hierarchal structure design. The triangular lattice material presented here integrates tailorable CTEs, lightweight characteristic, and robust mechanical properties, and is very promising for engineering applications where precise control of thermally induced expansion is in urgently needed.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Weiss, D. J. , 2007, “ Magnetic Force and Thermal Expansion as Failure Mechanisms of Electrothermal MEMS Actuators Under Electrostatic Discharge Testing,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 74(5), pp. 996–1005. [CrossRef]
Yeh, H.-L. , and Yeh, H.-Y. , 2001, “ Effect of Transverse Moduli on Through-Thickness Hygrothermal Expansion Coefficients of Composite Laminates,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 68(6), pp. 878–879. [CrossRef]
Dvorak, G. J. , and Chen, T. Y. , 1989, “ Thermal Expansion of Three-Phase Composite Materials,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 56(2), pp. 418–422. [CrossRef]
Karunaratne, M. S. A. , Kyaw, S. , Jones, A. , Morrell, R. , and Thomson, R. C. , 2016, “ Modelling the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion in Ni-Based Superalloys and Bond Coatings,” J. Mater. Sci., 51(9), pp. 4213–4226. [CrossRef]
Lauren, A. N. , Vladimir, K. , Erich, M. S. , and Hans, D. R. , 2014, “ Negative Thermal Expansion in a Zirconium Tungstate/Epoxy Composite at Low Temperatures,” J. Mater. Sci., 49(1), pp. 392–396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-013-7716-8
Evans, J. S. O. , Mary, T. A. , and Sleight, A. W. , 1998, “ Negative Thermal Expansion in Sc2 (WO4)3,” J. Solid State Chem., 137(1), pp. 148–160. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Withers, R. L. , and Norén, L. , 2003, “ An Electron Diffraction, XRD and Lattice Dynamical Investigation of the Average Structure and Rigid Unit Mode (RUM) Modes of Distortion of Microporous AlPO4-5,” Solid State Sci., 5(3), pp. 427–434. [CrossRef]
Sleight, A. W. , 1998, “ Compounds That Contract on Heating,” Inorg. Chem., 37(12), pp. 2854–2860. [CrossRef]
Ito, T. , Suganuma, T. , and Wakashima, K. , 1999, “ Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Composite Laminates With Negative Coefficients of Thermal Expansion,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 18(17), pp. 1363–1365. [CrossRef]
Kelly, A. , Stearn, R. , and McCartney, L. , 2006, “ Composite Materials of Controlled Thermal Expansion,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 66(2), pp. 154–159. [CrossRef]
Sigmund, O. , and Torquato, S. , 1996, “ Composites With Extremal Thermal Expansion Coefficients,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 69(21), p. 3203. [CrossRef]
Liu, C. , Du, Z. L. , Zhang, W. S. , Zhu, Y. C. , and Guo, X. , 2017, “ Additive Manufacturing-Oriented Design of Graded Lattice Structures Through Explicit Topology Optimization,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 84(8), p. 081008. [CrossRef]
Mai, S. P. , Wen, S. C. , and Lu, J. , 2015, “ Lattice Structures Made From Surface-Modified Steel Sheets,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 82(1), p. 011007. [CrossRef]
Hammetter, C. I. , and Zok, F. W. , 2013, “ Compressive Response of Pyramidal Lattices Embedded in Foams,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 81(1), p. 011006. [CrossRef]
Lakes, R. , 1996, “ Cellular Solid Structures With Unbounded Thermal Expansion,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 15(6), pp. 475–477. http://silver.neep.wisc.edu/~lakes/HiAlpha.pdf
Lakes, R. , 2007, “ Cellular Solids With Tunable Positive or Negative Thermal Expansion of Unbounded Magnitude,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 90(22), p. 221905. [CrossRef]
Jefferson, G. , Parthasarathy, T. A. , and Kerans, R. J. , 2009, “ Tailorable Thermal Expansion Hybrid Structures,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 46(11–12), pp. 2372–2387. [CrossRef]
Lim, T. C. , 2005, “ Anisotropic and Negative Thermal Expansion Behavior in a Cellular Microstructure,” J. Mater. Sci., 40(12), pp. 3275–3277. [CrossRef]
Lim, T.-C. , 2012, “ Negative Thermal Expansion Structures Constructed From Positive Thermal Expansion Trusses,” J. Mater. Sci., 47(1), pp. 368–373. [CrossRef]
Wang, P. , Fan, H. L. , and Xu, B. B. , 2015, “ Collapse Criteria for High Temperature Ceramic Lattice Truss Materials,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 89, pp. 505–513. [CrossRef]
Steeves, C. A. , Lucato, S. L. , and He, M. , 2007, “ Concepts for Structurally Robust Materials That Combine Low Thermal Expansion With High Stiffness,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 55(9), pp. 1803–1822. [CrossRef]
Wei, K. , Chen, H. S. , Pei, Y. M. , and Fang, D. N. , 2016, “ Planar Lattices With Tailorable Coefficient of Thermal Expansion and High Stiffness Based on Dual-Material Triangle Unit,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 86, pp. 173–191. [CrossRef]
Miller, W. , Mackenzie, D. , and Smith, C. , 2008, “ A Generalised Scale-Independent Mechanism for Tailoring of Thermal Expansivity: Positive and Negative,” Mech. Mater., 40(4–5), pp. 351–361. [CrossRef]
Yan, M. G. , 2001, China Aeronautical Materials Handbook, China Standard Press, Beijing, China.
Sigmund, O. , and Torquato, S. , 1997, “ Design of Materials With Extreme Thermal Expansion Using a Three-Phase Topology Optimization Method,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 45(6), pp. 1037–1067. [CrossRef]
Wang, B. , Yan, J. , and Cheng, G. , 2011, “ Optimal Structure Design With Low Thermal Directional Expansion and High Stiffness,” Eng. Optim., 43(6), pp. 581–595. [CrossRef]
Yamamoto, N. , Gdoutos, E. , and Toda, R. , 2014, “ Thin Films With Ultra-Low Thermal Expansion,” Adv. Mater., 26(19), pp. 3076–3080. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yuan, Y. , Huang, J. Y. , and Peng, X. L. , 2014, “ Accurate Displacement Measurement Via a Self-Adaptive Digital Image Correlation Method Based on a Weighted ZNSSD Criterion,” Opt. Lasers Eng., 52, pp. 75–85. [CrossRef]
Miller, W. , Smith, C. W. , Mackenzie, D. S. , and Evans, K. E. , 2009, “ Negative Thermal Expansion: A Review,” J. Mater. Sci., 44(20), pp. 5441–5451. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Dual-constituent triangular lattice material, (b) thermal deformation mechanism (decrease in the vertical direction: dh<0), and (c) the symmetrical model (element numbers with circles outside and nodal numbers without)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Zero and negative CTE are available with α1>α2(α1/α2=10), while large positive CTE are available with α1>α2(α1/α2=0.05)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Influence of E1/E2 on the αv/α2 (α1/α2=10, β=30 deg)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Arrangement of the specimen: Al base and Invar hypotenuse members and (b) experimentally measured vertical CTE of the specimen versus temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Arrangement of the specimen: Al base and St hypotenuse members and (b) experimentally measured vertical CTE of the specimen versus temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Arrangement of the specimen: Invar base and Al hypotenuse members and (b) experimentally measured vertical CTE of the specimen versus temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) The calculation model with in-plane loads. The collapse surfaces in the stress spaces of (b) (σxx,σyy), (c) (σxx,σxy), and (d) (σxx,σxy).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Elastic stiffness Exx∗/E1 and Eyy∗/E1 and (b) shear stiffness Gxy∗/E1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Hierarchal design of the triangular dual-constituent lattice material for wide range of thermal expansion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The wide range of tailorable CTEs for the hierarchal triangular dual-constituent lattice material: (a) PTE and (b) NTE

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Ashby plot and comparison of the range for thermal expansion versus density of engineering available materials

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In