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Research Papers

Design and Analysis of Laminates for Self-Deployment of Viscoelastic Bistable Tape Springs After Long-Term Stowage

[+] Author and Article Information
Huina Mao

Department of Aeronautical and
Vehicle Engineering,
KTH Royal Institute of Technology,
Stockholm 100 44, Sweden
e-mail: huina@kth.se

Anton Shipsha

Department of Aeronautical and
Vehicle Engineering,
KTH Royal Institute of Technology,
Stockholm 100 44, Sweden
e-mail: shipsha@kth.se

Gunnar Tibert

Department of Aeronautical and
Vehicle Engineering,
KTH Royal Institute of Technology,
Stockholm 100 44, Sweden
e-mail: tibert@kth.se

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 2, 2017; final manuscript received May 1, 2017; published online May 22, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Nick Aravas.

J. Appl. Mech 84(7), 071004 (May 22, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: JAM-17-1121; doi: 10.1115/1.4036672 History: Received March 02, 2017; Revised May 01, 2017

Bistable tape springs are ultrathin fiber-reinforced polymer composites, which could self-deploy through releasing stored strain energy. Strain energy relaxation is observed after long-term stowage of bistable tape springs due to viscoelastic effects and the tape springs might lose their self-deployment abilities. In order to mitigate the viscoelastic effects and thus ensure self-deployment, different tape springs were designed, manufactured, and tested. Deployment experiments show that a four-layer, [−45/0/90/45], plain weave glass fiber tape spring has a high capability to mitigate the strain energy relaxation effects to ensure self-deployment after long-term stowage in a coiled configuration. The two inner layers increase the deployment force and the outer layers are used to generate the bistability. The presented four-layer tape spring can self-deploy after more than six months of stowage at room temperature. A numerical model was used to assess the long-term stowage effects on the deployment capability of bistable tape springs. The experiments and modeling results show that the viscoelastic strain energy relaxation starts after only a few minutes after coiling. The relaxation shear stiffness decreases as the shear strain increases and is further reduced by strain energy relaxation when a constant shear strain is applied. The numerical model and experiments could be applied in design to predict the deployment force of other types of tape springs with viscoelastic and friction effects included.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Bistable tape springs: (a) coiled tape springs of different layers and layups, (b) extended tape springs of different layers and layups, and (c) a specimen for material property test

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Fig. 2

Stress–strain curves from the tensile tests

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Fig. 3

Stress–strain curves from the shear tests

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Fig. 4

Stress relaxation test: shear stiffness G12* decreases when subjected to a constant shear strain of γ12 = 1%; creep test: shear stiffness G12* decreases when subjected to a constant shear stress corresponding to an initial shear strain of γ12 = 0.45%

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Fig. 5

Deployment of a four-layer, [−45/0/90/45], tape spring after stowage of 1.2 days, where the end of the tape spring is marked by a dot

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Fig. 6

Straight deployment of tape springs immediately (within 1 min) after being coiled into two different coiling radii at room temperature

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Fig. 7

Straight deployment of (a) two-layer, [−45/45] and (b) three-layer, [−45/0/45], tape springs with different stowage times and coiling radii at room temperature

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Fig. 8

Straight deployment of a four-layer, [−45/0/90/45], tape spring with different stowage times and coiling radii. The tape spring can self-deploy after 2 months of stowage at room temperature.

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Fig. 9

Recovery capability of the tape springs: redeployment of the tape springs after being straight for 10 min after first deployment after 7 days of stowage

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Fig. 10

Geometry of a bistable tape spring: (a) extended state, (b) bend state, (c) natural coiling state, and (d) deployment from a specific radius

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Fig. 11

Evolution of important parameters due to relaxation at room temperature by keeping a constant shear strain, γ12 = 1%: (a) the stability parameter, S, (b) bending stiffness Dij, (c) theoretical deployment force, Fs, and (d) natural coiling radius Rn

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Fig. 12

Stored strain energy plot for the two-layer, [−45/45], tape springs

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Fig. 13

Stored strain energy plot for the four-layer, [−45/0/90/45], tape springs

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Fig. 14

Deployments experiments and simulations with different coiling radii with 1 min stowage time

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