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Research Papers

Modeling Hypervelocity-Impact-Induced Shock Waves for Characterizing Orbital Debris-Produced Damage

[+] Author and Article Information
Menglong Liu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Kowloon, Hong Kong

Zhongqing Su

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Kowloon, Hong Kong
e-mail: zhongqing.su@polyu.edu.hk

Qingming Zhang, Renrong Long

State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received December 8, 2015; final manuscript received May 23, 2016; published online June 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Weinong Chen.

J. Appl. Mech 83(8), 081010 (Jun 10, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: JAM-15-1659; doi: 10.1115/1.4033679 History: Received December 08, 2015; Revised May 23, 2016

Hypervelocity impact (HVI) is a scenario involving an impacting velocity in excess of 1 km/s. Ubiquitous in outer space, paradigms of HVI are typified by the collision between orbital debris and spacecraft. HVI features transient, localized, and extreme material deformation under which the induced acoustic emission (AE) signals present unique yet complex features. A dedicated modeling and numerical simulation approach, based on the three-dimensional smooth-particle hydrodynamics (SPH), was developed to gain an insight into characteristics of HVI-induced AE propagation. With the approach, both normal and oblique HVI scenarios were interrogated, and material failure in both cases was predicted. The coincidence in results between simulation and HVI experiment, as observed at a qualitative degree, has demonstrated the effectiveness of the modeling. Signal analysis shows that the shock wave converts to Lamb wave quickly as propagation from HVI spot, with the zeroth-order symmetric wave mode (S0) (i.e., the first-arrival wave) dominating wave signal energy. S0 is observed dispersive in a wide frequency range with majority of it below 1 MHz. In comparison, the antisymmetric wave mode distributes in a range below 200 kHz with a peak value at 30 kHz. S0 was employed to pinpoint the location of HVI, using an enhanced delay-and-sum-based diagnostic imaging algorithm, which was validated by locating orbital debris-induced orifice in space structures, showing precise identification results.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Comparison of simulation and experiment results in normal HVI (frame interval: 2 μs) [34]

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Fig. 10

In-plane strain in normal and oblique HVI acquired at gauge points with a wave propagation distance of 30 mm from HVI spot at different wave propagation directions: (a) normal HVI and (b) oblique HVI

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Fig. 3

(a) Relationship between shock wave velocity and compression ratio of target structure obtained using hybrid modeling and (b) shock wave velocity versus shock wave propagation distance

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Fig. 4

In-plane strain acquired at gauge point (0, 42, 42) in normal HVI: (a) original signal; (b) isolated symmetric and antisymmetric mode

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Fig. 5

Frequency spectra of in-plane symmetric and antisymmetric strains in Fig. 4

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Fig. 6

Wavelet spectrographs of in-plane strain in Fig. 4: (a) symmetric mode and (b) antisymmetric mode

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Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of normal and oblique HVI scenarios; and (b) hybrid model showing HVI vicinity (using SPH) and rest of target structure (using FE)

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Fig. 7

Progressive change in material properties in normal HVI at typical instants: 0.4 × 10−6 s, 0.8 × 10−6 s, 1.2 × 10−6 s, 2.0 × 10−6 s, and 2.8 × 10−6 s

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Fig. 8

Comparison of simulation and experiment results in oblique HVI (frame interval: 2 μs)

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Fig. 9

Progressive change in material properties in oblique HVI at typical instants: 0.4 × 10−6 s, 0.8 × 10−6 s, 1.2 × 10−6 s, 2.0 × 10−6 s, and 2.8 × 10−6 s

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Fig. 11

Ultimate resulting image with four sensors (a) in normal HVI without noise screening process, (b) in normal HVI with noise screening process, and (c) in oblique HVI with noise screening process

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