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Research Papers

Evolution Mechanisms of Thermal Shock Cracks in Ceramic Sheet

[+] Author and Article Information
Xianghong Xu

State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics,
Institute of Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
No. 15 Beisihuanxi Road,
Beijing 100190, China
e-mail: xxh@lnm.imech.ac.cn

Zhongkang Lin, Shilong Sheng, Wenjun Yuan

State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics,
Institute of Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
No. 15 Beisihuanxi Road,
Beijing 100190, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received February 23, 2016; final manuscript received March 23, 2016; published online April 15, 2016. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 83(7), 071001 (Apr 15, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: JAM-16-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4033175 History: Received February 23, 2016; Revised March 23, 2016

Knowledge of crack initiation, propagation, and corresponding thermal shock failure evolution is prerequisite for effective maintenance of civil engineering so as to avoid disaster. Experimental analysis of the cracking in the ceramic sheets subsequent to water quenching has been conducted. Based on statistical mesoscopic damage mechanics, it was revealed that there are four stages in the process of thermal shock evolution of ceramics subjected to water quenching. The multiple cracks interaction mechanism has been analyzed from the viewpoint of the evolution of the elastic strain energy and stress intensity factor.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of bound ceramic sheet and free fall direction for thermal shock

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Fig. 2

Thermal shock cracks on the interior surface of three ceramic sheets: (a) experimental results and (b) simulation results. The quench and water temperatures are 400 °C and 17 °C, respectively.

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Fig. 3

Theoretical model of ceramic sheet under water quenching

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Fig. 4

Damage constitutive model of the mesoscopic unit: (a) tensile mode, (b) compressive mode, and (c) shear mode

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Fig. 5

Statistic distributions of the thermal shock crack depths of the ceramic sheets. Cracks of six specimens are adopted in the statistical analysis each. The quench and water temperatures are 400 °C and 17 °C, respectively. The solid line represents the bimodal Gaussian fitting function, and the dotted line indicates the positions of the bimodal peak.

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Fig. 6

Thermal shock crack spacing versus crack length. Hollow circles (○) and solid squares (▪) show the experimental and numerical results, respectively.

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Fig. 7

Crack evolution process of the ceramic sheet under water quenching by numerical simulations. The upper left 1/4 area of the specimen no. 1 is shown. The quench and water temperature are 400 °C and 17 °C, respectively. White and black arrows represent the long and short cracks, respectively. Dotted and solid lines represent the arrested and extending cracks, respectively. The thermal shock time t is (a) 0.009 s, (b) 0.017 s, (c) 0.024 s, (d) 0.030 s, (e) 0.100 s, (f) 0.250 s, (g) 0.400 s, and (h) 0.477 s, respectively.

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Fig. 8

Evolution of the crack depth during the whole process of thermal shock. The specimen number is no. 1. Symbols “L” and “S” represent the long and short cracks, respectively. The short crack has arrested one after the other in the [t2, t2max], and the long crack has arrested one by one in the [t3min, t3]. t2, t2max, t3min, and t3min represents the times of the first crack arrested, all short cracks arrested, the first long crack arrested, and all cracks arrested, respectively.

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Fig. 9

Evolution process of the failure unit number and crack depth under thermal shock. t2 and t3 represent the thermal shock times of the first crack arrested and all cracks arrested, respectively.

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Fig. 10

Evolution process of the elastic strain energy stored in a specimen during thermal shock. t1 and t2′ represent the times of the first peak and first minimum elastic strain energy, respectively. t2, t2max, t3min, and t3min represent the times of the first crack arrested, all short cracks arrested, the first long crack arrested, and all cracks arrested, respectively.

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Fig. 11

Theoretical model of the interaction between multiple cracks with depth fluctuations. (a) Cracks with equal depth and spacing and (b) cracks with equal spacing and depth except for the middle crack no. 8 with a little more depth.

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Fig. 12

Stress intensity factor difference ΔKI caused by crack depth fluctuation: (a) ΔKI versus thermal shock time and (b) ΔKI versus spatial location of crack. The crack spacing, depth, and depth fluctuation are taken as 0.18, 0.1, and 0.02, respectively, according to the statistical analysis of experimental and numerical results. For symmetry, only eight cracks, nos. 1–8, are shown.

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Fig. 13

Experimental crack patterns of the ceramic sheets under thermal shock. The upper left 1/4 area of the specimen is shown. The water temperature is 17 °C. The quench temperature is (a) 220 °C, (b) 240 °C, (c) 260 °C, (d) 280 °C, (e) 290 °C, (f) 300 °C, (g) 400 °C, (h) 500 °C, and (i) 600 °C, respectively.

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Fig. 14

Numerical crack patterns of the ceramic sheets under thermal shock. The upper left 1/4 area of the specimen is shown. The water temperature is 17 °C. The quench temperature is (a) 220 °C, (b) 240 °C, (c) 260 °C, (d) 280 °C, (e) 290 °C, (f) 300 °C, (g) 400 °C, (h) 500 °C, and (i) 600 °C, respectively. The water temperature is 17 °C.

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