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Research Papers

Wear Resistance of Polymers With Encapsulated Epoxy-Amine Self-Healing Chemistry

[+] Author and Article Information
Nay Win Khun, He Zhang

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798, Singapore

Jinglei Yang

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798, Singapore
e-mail: MJLYang@ntu.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received December 30, 2014; final manuscript received March 10, 2015; published online March 31, 2015. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 82(5), 051006 (May 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: JAM-14-1619; doi: 10.1115/1.4030029 History: Received December 30, 2014; Revised March 10, 2015; Online March 31, 2015

In this study, epoxy resin was microencapsulated through in situ polymerization in an oil-in-water emulsion, and amine was loaded into etched glass bubbles (GBs) as a curing agent for the microencapsulated epoxy resin. The purpose was to develop a two-component-self-healing system. The two healing agent carriers were co-incorporated in the epoxy matrix to form novel epoxy composites for tribological applications. The tribological results clearly showed that an increase in healing agent carrier content significantly decreased the friction and wear of the epoxy composites tested against a 6 mm steel ball under different normal loads. This was due to the self-lubricating and self-healing of the composites with released core liquids via the rupture of healing agent carriers during the wear test. It could be concluded that the co-incorporation of two healing agent carriers was a potential way to achieve a significant improvement in the tribological properties of epoxy matrix composites.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

SEM micrographs of (a) microcapsules containing epoxy solution and (b) etched GBs for amine solution. (c) Optical image of epoxy composite with 10 wt.% healing agent carriers. The insets in (a) and (b) show SEM micrographs of a ruptured microcapsule and a glass shell with a single though-hole, respectively.

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Fig. 2

Surface morphologies of polished (a) epoxy and epoxy composites with healing agent carrier contents of (b) 10, and (c) 15 wt.%

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Fig. 3

Hardnesses and Young’s moduli of epoxy and epoxy composites with different healing agent carrier contents

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Fig. 4

(a) Friction coefficients of epoxy and epoxy composites with different healing agent carrier contents slid against a 100Cr6 steel ball of 6 mm in diameter in a circular path of 4 mm in diameter for 150,000 laps at a sliding speed of 4 cm/s under normal loads of 2 and 5 N. Friction coefficients of the same samples slid under normal loads of (b) 2 and (c) 5 N as a function of the number of laps.

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Fig. 5

Specific wear rates of epoxy and epoxy composites with different healing agent carrier contents, slid under the same conditions as described in Fig. 4

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Fig. 6

SEM images showing surface morphologies of polished (a) epoxy and epoxy composites with healing agent carrier contents of (b) 10 and (c) 15 wt.%

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Fig. 7

SEM micrographs showing surface morphologis of worn ((a) and (b)) epoxy and epoxy composites with healing agent carrier contents of ((c) and (d)) 10 and ((e) and (f)) 15 wt.%, slid against a 100Cr6 steel ball of 6 mm in diameter in a circular path of 4 mm in diameter for 150,000 laps at a sliding speed of 4 cm/s under normal loads of ((a), (c), and (e)) 2 and ((b), (d), and (f)) 5 N

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Fig. 8

Self-healing mechanism of an epoxy composite during wear test

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