A theoretical model of one-dimensional (1D) hierarchical metacomposite with internal resonators was proposed to generate negative effective mass over specific frequency ranges. Different from the single-resonator microstructure, the current hierarchical metamaterial with multilevel resonators was constructed by a series of springs and rigid bodies. The general formula of the current hierarchical metamaterial model was induced to reveal the relationship between the effective mass and the forcing frequency. It is found that the hierarchical metamaterial with multilevel resonators generates multifrequency band gaps with negative effective masses. The number of the band gaps equals to the order of the hierarchy. The total bandwidth for the negative effective mass increases with the hierarchy, meanwhile increasing the mass ratio can also obviously increase the bandwidth generating negative effective mass.