Residual stress and crystalline defects in silicon wafers can affect solar cell reliability and performance. Infrared photoelastic measurements are performed for stress mapping in monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) wafers and compared to photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The wafer stresses are then quantified using a discrete dislocation-based numerical modeling approach, which leads to simulated photoelastic images. The model accounts for wafer stress relaxation due to dislocation structures. The wafer strain energy is then analyzed with respect to the orientation of the dislocation structures. The simulation shows that particular locations on the wafer have only limited slip systems that reduce the wafer strain energy. Experimentally observed dislocation structures are consistent with these observations from the analysis, forming the basis for a more quantitative infrared photoelasticity-based inspection method.