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Research Papers

Short Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Tribomaterials Self-Lubricated by Wax Containing Microcapsules

[+] Author and Article Information
Nay Win Khun, He Zhang, Xiu-zhi Tang, Chee Yoon Yue

School of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
639798, Singapore

Jinglei Yang

School of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
639798, Singapore
e-mail: mjlyang@ntu.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS. Manuscript received July 7, 2014; final manuscript received October 4, 2014; accepted manuscript posted October 10, 2014; published online October 23, 2014. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 81(12), 121004 (Oct 23, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: JAM-14-1296; doi: 10.1115/1.4028752 History: Received July 07, 2014; Revised October 04, 2014; Accepted October 10, 2014

The effects of wax lubricant filled microcapsule content on the tribological properties of epoxy composites without or with 8 wt.% short carbon fibers (SCFs) were systematically investigated. The core percentage of the microcapsules used in this study was about 70 wt.%. The tribological results clearly showed that the friction and wear of the epoxy composites without or with SCFs tested against a 6 mm steel ball significantly decreased with increased microcapsule content from 2.5 to 10 wt.% as a result of the increased amount of released wax lubricant to lubricate rubbing surfaces. The epoxy composites with 8 wt.% SCFs exhibited the lower friction and wear than the ones without SCFs due to the combined lubricating effects of SCFs and released wax lubricant and the improved mechanical strength of the composites. It can be concluded that the higher microcapsule content gives rise to the lower friction and wear of the epoxy composites as the epoxy composites with 8 wt.% SCFs have the better tribological performance than the ones without SCFs.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Overview of synthesized microcapsules containing Epiwax B2538. (b) Surface morphology, (c) enlarged surface morphology, and (d) cross-sectional morphology of a single microcapsule.

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Fig. 2

TGA curves of pure Epiwax B2538, microencapsulated Epiwax B2538, and pure PUF shell

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Fig. 3

Root-mean-squared surface roughnesses, Rq, of polished epoxy composites without or with 8 wt.% SCFs as a function of wax lubricant filled microcapsule content

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Fig. 4

Surface morphologies of polished (a) epoxy and epoxy composites (b) with 8 wt.% SCFs, with (c) 2.5 and (d) 10 wt.% wax lubricant filled microcapsules and with mixtures of (e) 8 wt.% SCFs and 2.5 wt.% wax lubricant filled microcapsules, and (f) 8 wt.% SCFs and 10 wt.% wax lubricant filled microcapsules

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Fig. 5

Hardnesses of epoxy composites without or with 8 wt.% SCFs as a function of wax lubricant filled microcapsule content

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Fig. 6

Friction coefficients of epoxy composites without or with 8 wt.% SCFs, slid against a Cr6 steel ball of 6 mm in diameter in a circular path of 2 mm in radius for about 60,000 laps at a sliding speed of 4 cm/s under a normal load of 6 N, as functions of (a) wax lubricant filled microcapsule content and (b) the number of laps

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Fig. 8

SEM micrographs showing surface morphologies of worn (a) epoxy and epoxy composites (b) with 8 wt.% SCFs, with (c) 2.5, and (d) 10 wt.% wax lubricant filled microcapsules and with mixtures of (e) 8 wt.% SCFs and 2.5 wt.% wax lubricant filled microcapsules, and (f) 8 wt.% SCFs and 10 wt.% wax lubricant filled microcapsules, tested under the same conditions as described in Fig. 6

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Fig. 7

Wear widths and depths of epoxy composites without or with 8 wt.% SCFs, tested under the same conditions as described in Fig. 6, as a function of wax lubricant filled microcapsule content

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