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Research Papers

Self-Lubricating and Wear Resistant Epoxy Composites Incorporated With Microencapsulated Wax

[+] Author and Article Information
N. W. Khun, H. Zhang, C. Y. Yue

School of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798, Singapore

J. L. Yang

School of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798, Singapore
e-mail: mjlyang@ntu.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 24, 2013; final manuscript received February 23, 2014; accepted manuscript posted February 26, 2014; published online March 12, 2014. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 81(7), 071004 (Mar 12, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JAM-13-1517; doi: 10.1115/1.4026941 History: Received December 24, 2013; Revised February 23, 2014; Accepted February 26, 2014

Self-lubricating and wear resistant epoxy composites were developed via incorporation of wax-containing microcapsules. The effects of microcapsule size and content and working parameters on the tribological properties of epoxy composites were systematically investigated. The incorporation of microcapsules dramatically decreased the friction and wear of the composites from those of the epoxy. The increased microcapsule content or the incorporation of larger microcapsules decreased the friction and wear of the epoxy composites due to the larger amount of released wax lubricant via the rupture of microcapsules during the wear test. The friction of the composites decreased with increased normal load as a result of the promoted wear of the composites and the increased release of the wax lubricant.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

SEM image showing wax-containing microcapsules with 63–90 μm in diameter

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Fig. 2

Root-mean-squared-surface roughnesses (Rq) of epoxy and epoxy composites with different microcapsule size ranges and contents

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Fig. 3

Surface morphologies of (a) epoxy and epoxy composites with 38–63 μm microcapsule contents of (b) 2.5 and (c) 10 wt. % and 63–90 μm microcapsule contents of (d) 2.5 and (e) 10 wt. %

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Fig. 4

Hardnesses and Young's moduli of epoxy and epoxy composites with different microcapsule size ranges and contents

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Fig. 5

Friction coefficients of epoxy and epoxy composites with different microcapsule size ranges and contents, slid against a Cr6 steel ball of 6 mm in diameter in a circular path of 4 mm in diameter for about 100,000 laps at different sliding speeds under different normal loads

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Fig. 6

Friction coefficients of epoxy and epoxy composites with different microcapsule size ranges and contents, slid against a Cr6 steel ball of 6 mm in diameter in a circular path of 4 mm in diameter for about 100,000 laps (a) at a sliding speed of 3 cm/s under a normal load of 3 N, (b) at a sliding speed of 3 cm/s under a normal load of 6 N, and (c) at a sliding speed of 12 cm/s under a normal load of 6 N, as a function of the number of laps

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Fig. 7

(a) Wear widths and (b) depths of epoxy and epoxy composites with different microcapsule size ranges and contents slid under the same conditions as described in Fig. 5

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Fig. 8

SEM micrographs showing worn surfaces of epoxy slid against a Cr6 steel ball of 6 mm in diameter in a circular path of 4 mm in diameter for about 100,000 laps (a) at a sliding speed of 3 cm/s under a normal load of 3 N, (b) at a sliding speed of 3 cm/s under a normal load of 6 N, and (c) at a sliding speed of 12 cm/s under a normal load of 6 N

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Fig. 9

SEM micrographs showing worn surfaces of epoxy composites with 38–63 μm microcapsule contents of (a), (b), and (c) 2.5 and (d), (e), and (f) 10 wt. % slid against a Cr6 steel ball of 6 mm in diameter in a circular path of 4 mm in diameter for about 100,000 laps (a) and (d) at a sliding speed of 3 cm/s under a normal load of 3 N, (b) and (e) at a sliding speed of 3 cm/s under a normal load of 6 N, and (c) and (f) at a sliding speed of 12 cm/s under a normal load of 6 N

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Fig. 10

SEM micrographs showing worn surfaces of epoxy composites with 63–90 μm microcapsule contents of (a), (b), and (c) 2.5 and (d), (e), and (f) 10 wt. % slid against a Cr6 steel ball of 6 mm in diameter in a circular path of 4 mm in diameter for about 100,000 laps (a) and (d) at a sliding speed of 3 cm/s under a normal load of 3 N, (b) and (e) at a sliding speed of 3 cm/s under a normal load of 6 N, and (c) and (f) at a sliding speed of 12 cm/s under a normal load of 6 N

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