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Research Papers

Rate Dependent Adhesion Energy and Nonsteady Peeling of Inextensible Tapes

[+] Author and Article Information
Christopher Kovalchick

Graduate Aerospace Laboratories,
California Institute of Technology,
Pasadena, CA 91125
e-mail: Kovalchick@gmail.com

Alain Molinari

Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures
et de Mécanique des Matériaux,
UMR 7213, Université de Lorraine,
Ile du Saulcy,
Metz Cedex 01 57045, France
e-mail: alain.molinari@univ-lorraine.fr

Guruswami Ravichandran

Graduate Aerospace Laboratories,
California Institute of Technology,
Pasadena, CA 91125
e-mail: ravi@caltech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 16, 2013; final manuscript received August 16, 2013; accepted manuscript posted August 22, 2013; published online October 16, 2013. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 81(4), 041016 (Oct 16, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: JAM-13-1291; doi: 10.1115/1.4025273 History: Received July 16, 2013; Revised August 16, 2013; Accepted August 22, 2013

Elastomer based pressure sensitive adhesives used in various peeling applications are viscoelastic and expected to be rate sensitive. The effects of varying peel velocity on adhesion energy and its dependence on the peel angle and rate of peeling are investigated. Experiments are conducted on an adhesive tape using a displacement-controlled peel test configuration. By adjusting the peel arm length, the peel velocity can be continuously varied though the extremity of the film is displaced at a constant rate, which results in nonsteady peeling. Constant peel rate tests are performed over a wide range of peeling rates for a fixed peeling angle, which results in steady state peeling. Based upon the experimental data, a power law relation for the adhesive energy of a packaging tape and its dependence on the rate of peeling is presented. The applicability of the rate dependent law for adhesion energy based upon the steady state experiments to the nonsteady peeling process is critically examined.

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References

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ASTM D903-98, 2010, “Standard Test Method for Peel or Stripping Strength of Adhesive Bonds,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Peel test configuration for studying the rate dependence of adhesion energy: (a) schematic and (b) photograph of the setup

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Fig. 2

Schematic of a displacement-controlled peel test at constant vertical velocity v0 applied to the extremity of the tape whose horizontal location remains fixed at x = −l0 cos θ0: (a) initial configuration, and (b) current configuration

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Fig. 3

Change in the peel angle θ0 − θ versus tip position a for the initial peel angle θ0 = 90 deg and varying initial peel arm lengths l0 indicated in the plot

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Fig. 4

Peel force F versus the peel tip position a for various prescribed extremity velocities (v0) indicated in the plot. The test at v0 = 30 μm/s is for a variable width tape, with the width decreasing at xc = 50 mm.

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Fig. 5

Adhesion energy γ versus peel angle θ for varying extremity velocities (v0) denoted on the plot. The tests are all conducted on constant width tapes except for v0 = 30 μm/s, where a variable width tape with the width decreasing at xc = 50 mm is used.

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Fig. 6

Steady-state peel force/unit width (F/b) versus the peel angle (θ) for vertical velocities applied at the extremity of the tape of v0 = 10 μm/s and 50 μm/s for Scotch packaging tape. The symbols represent the experimental measurements and the lines are the best fit of the Rivlin relation in Eq. (1).

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Fig. 7

Adhesion energy (γ) versus peel angle (θ) for vertical velocities applied at the extremity of the tape of v0 = 10 μm/s and 50 μm/s for Scotch packaging tape. For comparison, the data for the Scotch magic tape are also shown for the applied velocity at the extremity of the tape v0 = 10 μm/s [18].

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Fig. 8

Adhesion energy γ as a function of peel velocity a·. The symbols represent the experimental data and the solid curve is the best fit power-law relation (see Eq. (7)).

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Fig. 9

Displacement and velocity (extremity (v0), peel tip (a·)) versus time (t) in a displacement controlled peel test for an initial peel arm length of l0 = 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) and an initial peel angle of θ0 = 90 deg. A constant vertical velocity (v0 = dya/dt) is applied at the extremity of the tape (10 μm/s).

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