The modal interactions and nonlinear responses of inextensional beams resting on elastic foundations with two-to-one internal resonances are investigated and the primary resonance excitations are considered. The multimode discretization and the method of multiple scales are applied to obtain the modulation equations. The equilibrium and dynamic solutions of the modulation equations are examined by the Newton–Raphson, shooting, and continuation methods. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the chaotic dynamics of the beam. It is shown that the nonlinear responses may undergo different bifurcations and exhibit rich nonlinear phenomena. Finally, the effects of the foundation models on the nonlinear interactions of the beam are examined.