Research Papers

Tunable Gigahertz Oscillators of Gliding Incommensurate Bilayer Graphene Sheets

[+] Author and Article Information
Boris I. Yakobson

e-mail: biy@rice.edu
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science,
Department of Chemistry, and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology,
Rice University,
Houston, TX 77005

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 13, 2013; final manuscript received March 21, 2013; accepted manuscript posted April 8, 2013; published online May 31, 2013. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 80(4), 040906 (May 31, 2013) (4 pages) Paper No: JAM-13-1022; doi: 10.1115/1.4024170 History: Received January 13, 2013; Revised March 21, 2013; Accepted April 08, 2013

Oscillators composed of incommensurate graphene sheets have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The oscillation frequencies can reach tens of gigahertz range and depend on the surface energy of the bilayer graphene and the oscillatory amplitude. We demonstrate the tunability of such an oscillator in terms of frequency and friction by its varying geometric parameters. Exploration of the damping mechanism by combining the autocorrelation function theory and the direct atomistic simulations reveals that the friction force is proportional to the velocity of oscillatory motion. The results should help optimize the design of graphene-based nanoelectromechanical devices.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zheng, Q., Jiang, B., Liu, S., Weng, Y., Lu, L., Xue, Q., Zhu, J., Jiang, Q., Wang, S., and Peng, L., 2008, “Self-Retracting Motion of Graphite Microflakes,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 100(6), p. 067205. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Popov, A. M., Lebedeva, I. V., Knizhnik, A. A., Lozovik, Y. E., and Potapkin, B. V., 2011, “Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Self-Retracting Motion of a Graphene Flake,” Phys. Rev. B, 84(24), p. 245437. [CrossRef]
Lee, C., Wei, X., Kysar, J. W., and Hone, J., 2008, “Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene,” Science, 321(5887), pp. 385–388. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kis, A., and Zettl, A., 2008, “Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes,” Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 366(1870), pp. 1591–1611. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lebedeva, I. V., Knizhnik, A. A., Popov, A. M., Lozovik, Y. E., and Potapkin, B. V., 2012, “Modeling of Graphene-Based NEMS,” Phys. E, 44(6), pp. 949–954. [CrossRef]
Cumings, J., and Zettl, A., 2000, “Low-Friction Nanoscale Linear Bearing Realized From Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes,” Science, 289(5479), pp. 602–604. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zheng, Q., and Jiang, Q., 2002, “Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Gigahertz Oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 88(4), p. 045503. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Guo, W., Guo, Y., Gao, H., Zheng, Q., and Zhong, W., 2003, “Energy Dissipation in Gigahertz Oscillators From Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 91(12), p. 125501. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhao, Y., Ma, C.-C., Chen, G., and Jiang, Q., 2003, “Energy Dissipation Mechanisms in Carbon Nanotube Oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 91(17), p. 175504. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rivera, J. L., McCabe, C., and Cummings, P. T., 2003, “Oscillatory Behavior of Double-Walled Nanotubes Under Extension: A Simple Nanoscale Damped Spring,” Nano Lett., 3(8), pp. 1001–1005. [CrossRef]
Servantie, J., and Gaspard, P., 2003, “Methods of Calculation of a Friction Coefficient: Application to Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 91(18), p. 185503. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stuart, S. J., Tutein, A. B., and Harrison, J. A., 2000, “A Reactive Potential for Hydrocarbons With Intermolecular Interactions,” J. Chem. Phys., 112(14), pp. 6472–6486. [CrossRef]
Guo, W., and Guo, Y., 2007, “Energy Optimum Chiralities of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 129(10), pp. 2730–2731. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Guo, W., and Gao, H., 2005, “Optimized Bearing and Interlayer Friction in Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes,” Comput. Model. Eng. Sci., 7(1), pp. 19–34. [CrossRef]
Kirkwood, J., 1946, “The Statistical Mechanical Theory of Transport Processes,” J. Chem. Phys., 14(3), pp. 180–201. [CrossRef]
Jarzynski, C., 1993, “Multiple-Time-Scale Approach to Ergodic Adiabatic Systems: Another Look,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 71(6), pp. 839–842. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Berry, M. V., and Robbins, J. M., 1993, “Classical Geometric Forces of Reaction: An Exactly Solvable Model,” Proc. R. Soc. A, 442(1916), pp. 641–658. [CrossRef]
Servantie, J., and Gaspard, P., 2006, “Translational Dynamics and Friction in Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. B, 73(12), p. 125428. [CrossRef]
Guo, Y., Guo, W., and Chen, C., 2007, “Modifying Atomic-Scale Friction Between Two Graphene Sheets: A Molecular-Force-Field Study,” Phys. Rev. B, 76(15), p. 155429. [CrossRef]
Yu, M., Yakobson, B. I., and Ruoff, R. S., 2000, “Controlled Sliding and Pullout of Nested Shells in Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 104(37), pp. 8764–8767. [CrossRef]
Good, R. J., Girifalco, L. A., and Kraus, G., 1958, “A Theory For Estimation of Interfacial Energies. II. Application to Surface Thermodynamics of Teflon and Graphite,” J. Phys. Chem., 62(11), pp. 1418–1421. [CrossRef]
Benedict, L. X., Chopra, N. G., Cohen, M. L., Zettl, A., Louie, A. G., and Crespi, C. H., 1998, “Microscopic Determination of the Interlayer Binding Energy in Graphite,” Chem. Phys. Lett., 286(5–6), pp. 490–496. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Retracting forces acting on the top sheets of different models of (a) group I and (b) group II. (c) Frequencies of oscillators with different a but constant b (line with solid squares) and with different b but constant a (line with hollow circles; see online version for color).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of displacement curves obtained from the MD simulation (black) and fitting analytical model (red). (a) Friction force is proportional to the glide velocity. (b) Constant friction force, independent of the glide velocity (see online version for color).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Friction coefficient for different graphene oscillators in group I, i.e., with the same b but different a. Simulation values are from fitting and theoretical values are from autocorrelation function integral calculations. (b) Friction coefficient of both groups I (squares) and II (circles) as a function of number of atoms N (see online version for color).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Oscillator trajectory in the phase space. The system starts at A and continues to B. (b) Retracting force acting on upper sheet in the oscillating direction.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of the graphene oscillator. Oscillatory motion is in the X direction. Right (purple) sheet is the top graphene layer and the left (blue) one is the bottom layer which is fixed during the simulations, both have length a and width b. (b) Energy profile of the oscillator with varying displacement of the top sheet in the XY plane. The top and right panels show the energy curves along the horizontal (yellow) and vertical (blue) lines in the energy profile, respectively (see online version for color).



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In