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Research Papers

Tunable Gigahertz Oscillators of Gliding Incommensurate Bilayer Graphene Sheets

[+] Author and Article Information
Boris I. Yakobson

e-mail: biy@rice.edu
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science,
Department of Chemistry, and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology,
Rice University,
Houston, TX 77005

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 13, 2013; final manuscript received March 21, 2013; accepted manuscript posted April 8, 2013; published online May 31, 2013. Editor: Yonggang Huang.

J. Appl. Mech 80(4), 040906 (May 31, 2013) (4 pages) Paper No: JAM-13-1022; doi: 10.1115/1.4024170 History: Received January 13, 2013; Revised March 21, 2013; Accepted April 08, 2013

Oscillators composed of incommensurate graphene sheets have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The oscillation frequencies can reach tens of gigahertz range and depend on the surface energy of the bilayer graphene and the oscillatory amplitude. We demonstrate the tunability of such an oscillator in terms of frequency and friction by its varying geometric parameters. Exploration of the damping mechanism by combining the autocorrelation function theory and the direct atomistic simulations reveals that the friction force is proportional to the velocity of oscillatory motion. The results should help optimize the design of graphene-based nanoelectromechanical devices.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of the graphene oscillator. Oscillatory motion is in the X direction. Right (purple) sheet is the top graphene layer and the left (blue) one is the bottom layer which is fixed during the simulations, both have length a and width b. (b) Energy profile of the oscillator with varying displacement of the top sheet in the XY plane. The top and right panels show the energy curves along the horizontal (yellow) and vertical (blue) lines in the energy profile, respectively (see online version for color).

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Fig. 2

(a) Oscillator trajectory in the phase space. The system starts at A and continues to B. (b) Retracting force acting on upper sheet in the oscillating direction.

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Fig. 3

Retracting forces acting on the top sheets of different models of (a) group I and (b) group II. (c) Frequencies of oscillators with different a but constant b (line with solid squares) and with different b but constant a (line with hollow circles; see online version for color).

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Fig. 4

Comparison of displacement curves obtained from the MD simulation (black) and fitting analytical model (red). (a) Friction force is proportional to the glide velocity. (b) Constant friction force, independent of the glide velocity (see online version for color).

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Fig. 5

(a) Friction coefficient for different graphene oscillators in group I, i.e., with the same b but different a. Simulation values are from fitting and theoretical values are from autocorrelation function integral calculations. (b) Friction coefficient of both groups I (squares) and II (circles) as a function of number of atoms N (see online version for color).

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