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Research Papers

Nonlinear H-Shaped Springs to Improve Efficiency of Vibration Energy Harvesters

[+] Author and Article Information
Sebastien Boisseau

e-mail: sebastien.boisseau@cea.fr

Ghislain Despesse

e-mail: ghislain.despesse@cea.fr

Bouhadjar Ahmed Seddik

CEA, LETI,
Minatec Campus,
Grenoble 38000, France

Manuscript received October 10, 2012; final manuscript received February 28, 2013; accepted manuscript posted March 6, 2013; published online August 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Marc Geers.

J. Appl. Mech 80(6), 061013 (Aug 21, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: JAM-12-1470; doi: 10.1115/1.4023961 History: Received October 10, 2012; Revised February 28, 2013; Accepted March 06, 2013

Vibration energy harvesting is an emerging technology aimed at turning mechanical energy from vibrations into electricity to power the microsystems of the future. Most current vibration energy harvesters (VEH) are based on a mass-spring structure: this introduces a resonance phenomenon that enables an increase of VEH output power (compared to nonresonant systems); however, the working frequency bandwidth is limited. Therefore, these devices are not able to harvest energy when ambient vibrations’ frequencies shift. To solve this problem and to increase the frequency band where power can be harvested, one solution consists in using nonlinear springs. This paper introduces H-shaped nonlinear springs, their model, and their benefits to improve VEH output powers. Simulations on real vibration sources show that the output power can be higher in nonlinear devices (up to +48%) compared to linear systems.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Generic model of vibration energy harvesters

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Fig. 2

Clamped-guided beam

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Fig. 3

Nonlinear effects in clamped-guided beams

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Fig. 4

Boundary conditions for FEA

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Fig. 5

Successive derivatives of FK(x) with respect to x: (a) FK, (b) FK (c) FK, (d) FK

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Fig. 6

H-shaped spring design

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Fig. 7

(a) Model of the new spring and equivalent behavior in (b) linear domain and (c) nonlinear domain

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Fig. 8

Finite element analyses results. Deformation and Von Mises stresses σ in Pa for various x and for (L, b, e, l1, l2, a) = (3 mm, 1 mm, 100 μm, 100 μm, 100 μm, 1 mm) (a) x = 50 μm, (b) x = 100 μm, (c) x = 250 μm, and (d) x = 500 μm.

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Fig. 9

Relative position (x) as a function of time (t) for nondamped oscillators

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Fig. 10

Variation of the normalized natural frequency feq/f0 of the energy harvester as a function of the normalized displacement amplitude xmax/e (f0 = 100 Hz, e = 100 μm)

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Fig. 11

Simulink model of VEH (a) linear and (b) nonlinear

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Fig. 12

(a) Relative displacement and (b) output power of a nonlinear energy harvester as a function of α (A = 1 m s−2) for e = 100 μm

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Fig. 13

Output powers of (a) a linear energy harvester and (b) a nonlinear energy harvester as a function of A (α = 1)

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Fig. 14

Vibrations on a “car engine at 3000 rpm”: (a) temporal, (b) zoom between 8 s and 8.02 s, and (c) spectrum

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Fig. 15

(a) Relative displacement and (b) zoom; (c) output power of the linear energy harvester for m = 1 g and (d) zoom

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Fig. 16

(a) Relative displacement and (b) zoom; (c) output power of the nonlinear energy harvester for m = 1 g and (d) zoom

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