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Terminal Ballistics and Impact Physics

Impacts and Waves in Dyneema® HB80 Strips and Laminates

[+] Author and Article Information
J. D. Walker

Southwest Research Institute,
P.O. Drawer 28510,
San Antonio, TX 78238

U. Heisserer

DSM Ahead/MSC,
P.O. Box 18,
6160 MD Geleen, The Netherlands

H. van der Werff

DSM Dyneema,
P.O. Box 1163,
6160 BD Geleen, The Netherlands

Manuscript received July 23, 2012; final manuscript received November 23, 2012; accepted manuscript posted January 10, 2013; published online April 19, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Bo S. G. Janzon.

J. Appl. Mech 80(3), 031806 (Apr 19, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: JAM-12-1346; doi: 10.1115/1.4023349 History: Received July 23, 2012; Revised November 23, 2012; Accepted January 10, 2013

Single-yarn impact results have been reported by multiple authors in the past, providing insight on the fundamental physics involved in fabric impact. This insight allowed developing full fabric models that were able to reproduce properly wave propagation, deflection, and ballistic limits. This paper proposes a similar experimental methodology but for a specific composite material made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. The presence of the polyurethane matrix in the composite is expected to slow down wave propagation. But the high-speed photographic tests reported in this paper indicate that wave propagation in strips and single-layer material is similar to that expected for dry fiber. An explanation is proposed for this unexpected result. This paper also reports the critical velocities (i.e., impact velocities that fail the fibers immediately) measured for the composite material and compares them to the velocities expected from the theory. The velocity is accurately predicted when taking into account wave interactions in front of the projectile. Finally, tests on multilayer composites are presented. In particular, a flash produced under the projectile during the first few microseconds was recorded with high-speed video cameras. A simplified study of the temperature increment upon impact indicates that the material may be reaching the autoignition point. This mechanism is speculated to be the origin of the flash systematically observed.

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References

Jameson, J. W., Stewart, G. M., Petterson, D. R., and Odell, F. A., 1962, “Dynamic Distribution of Strain in Textile Materials Under High-Speed Impact: Part III: Strain-Time-Position History in Yarns,” Text. Res. J., 32(10), pp. 858–860. [CrossRef]
Smith, J. C., McCrackin, F. L., and Schiefer, H. F., 1958, “Stress-Strain Relationships in Yarns Subjected to Rapid Impact Loading: Part V: Wave Propagation in Long Textile Yarns Impacted Transversely,” Text. Res. J., 28(4), pp. 288–302. [CrossRef]
Wilde, A. E., Ricca, J. J., Cole, L. M., and Rogers, J. M., 1970, “Dynamic Response of a Constrained Fibrous System Subjected to Transverse Impact Part I—Transient Responses and Breaking Energies of Nylon Yarns,” Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center, Technical Report No. AMMRC TR 70-32.
Field, J. E., and Sun, Q., 1990, “A High Speed Photographic Study of Impact on Fibres and Woven Fabrics,” SPIE 19th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, Vol. 1358, pp. 703–712.
Carr, D. J., 1982, “Failure Mechanisms of Yarns Subjected to Ballistic Impact,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 18(7) pp. 585–588. [CrossRef]
Wang, L.-L., Field, J. E., and Sun, Q., 1992, “Dynamic Behaviour of Pre-stressed High Strength Polymeric Yarns Transversely Impacted by a Blade,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Intense Dynamic Loading and Its Effects, Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Sichuan University Press, Chengdu, China, pp. 354–359.
Bazhenov, S. L., Dukhovskii, I. A., Kovalev, P. I., and Rozhkov, A. N., 2001, “The Fracture of SVM Aramid Fibers Upon a High-Velocity Transverse Impact,” Polymer Sci., Ser. A, 1, pp. 61–71.
Chocron, S., Kirchdoerfer, T., King, N., and Freitas, C. J., 2011, “Modeling of Fabric Impact With High Speed Imaging and Nickel-Chromium Wires Validation,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 78, p. 051007. [CrossRef]
Walker, J. D., and Chocron, S., 2011, “Why Impacted Yarns Break at Lower Speed Than Classical Theory Predicts,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 78, p. 051021. [CrossRef]
Heisserer, U., 2011, “Tensile Properties of Dyneema HB Plies (HB2, HB26, HB50, HB80),” DSM-Dyneema Technical Report.
Aramis Software, GOM Optical Measuring Techniques, http://www.gom.com/3d-software/aramis-software.html
Walker, J. D., Impact and Penetration Mechanics (to be published).
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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Images at 10 -μs intervals from test Strip-20. (b) Transverse wave position as measured from images.

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Fig. 2

Transverse wave velocity history for strip specimens shot with the 0.30″-caliber FSP. The last image shows a shot where the projectile did not engage.

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Fig. 3

(a) Image sequence of test strip-50 (single-layer, three-plies, one image every 10 μs) with part of the material being left behind. (b) Position of the transverse wave.

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Fig. 4

Transverse wave velocity for single-layer-three-plies strips. The last image is a single yarn test for comparison.

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Fig. 5

Position of the corner (base) of the pyramid versus time for all the tests performed on single layers

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Fig. 6

Single layer (four plies) results

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Fig. 7

Image sequence of test SL-20. The first six images are 10 μs apart; the 7th image was taken around 180 μs after impact. The last image corresponds to test SL-23, 200 μs after impact.

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Fig. 8

Image sequence for test SL-27. The first five images are 10 μs apart; the 6th image was taken around 170 μs after impact.

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Fig. 9

Position of the transverse wave for all the tests performed on laminates with the Shimadzu camera

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Fig. 10

Images for test B133#501. The time between images is 10 μs for the first five images. The last image was taken 190 μs after the first one.

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Fig. 11

Position of the apex of the pyramid for the tests performed on laminates

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Fig. 12

Test B233#550. The time between images is 10 μs for the first six images. The last image was taken 200 μs after the first one.

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Fig. 13

Image sequence on the right camera for test SL-02. Time between frames is 16.5 μs.

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Fig. 14

Test SL-02; typical information generated by the Aramis software

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