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Terminal Ballistics and Impact Physics

Impact Behavior of Hybrid Glass/Carbon Epoxy Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
M. J. Pérez-Martín

Department of Materials Science,
E.T.S.I. Caminos,
Canales y Puertos,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM),
28040, Madrid, Spain
e-mail: mariajesus.perez@mater.upm.es

A. Enfedaque

Department of Civil Engineering: Construction,
E.T.S.I. Caminos,
Canales y Puertos,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM),
28040, Madrid, Spain

W. Dickson

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),
Cambridge, MA 02139

F. Gálvez

Department of Materials Science,
E.T.S.I. Caminos,
Canales y Puertos,
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM),
28040, Madrid, Spain

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 29, 2012; final manuscript received November 13, 2012; accepted manuscript posted January 9, 2013; published online April 19, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Bo S. G. Janzon.

J. Appl. Mech 80(3), 031803 (Apr 19, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: JAM-12-1280; doi: 10.1115/1.4023344 History: Received June 29, 2012; Revised November 13, 2012; Accepted January 09, 2013

The high velocity impact performance in hybrid woven carbon and S2 and E glass fabric laminates manufactured by resin transfer molding (RTM) was studied. Specimens with different thicknesses and glass-fiber content were tested against 5.5 mm spherical projectiles with impact velocities ranging from 300 to 700 m/s to obtain the ballistic limit. The resulting deformation and fracture micromechanisms were studied. Several impacts were performed on the same specimens to identify the multihit behavior of such laminates. The results of the fracture analysis, in conjunction with those of the impact tests, were used to describe the role played by glass-fiber hybridization on the fracture micromechanisms and on the overall laminate performance under high velocity impact.

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References

Cantwell, W. J., and Morton, J., 1991, “The Impact Resistance of Composite Materials a Review,” Composites, 22, pp. 347–362. [CrossRef]
Abrate, S., 1998, Impact on Composite Structures, Cambridge University, Cambridge, New York.
Reid, S. R., and Zhou, G., 2000, Impact Behavior of Fibre-Reinforced Materials and Structures, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
Bartus, S. D., and Vaidya, U. K., 2007, “A Review: Impact Damage of Composite Materials,” J. Adv. Mater., 39(3), pp. 3–21.
Thanomsilp, C., and Hogg, P. J., 2003, “Penetration Impact Resistance of Hybrid Composites Based on Commingled Yarn Fabrics,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 63, pp. 467–482. [CrossRef]
Naik, N. K., Ramsimha, R., Arya, H., Prabhu, S. V., and Shamarao, N., 2001, “Impact Response and Damage Tolerance Characteristics of Glass–Carbon/Epoxy Hybrid Composite Plates,” Composites, Part B, 32, pp. 565–574. [CrossRef]
Enfedaque, A., Molina-Aldareguía, J. M., Gálvez, F., González, C., and LLorca, J., 2010, “Effect of Glass Fiber Hybridization on the Behavior Under Impact of Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates,” J. Compos. Mater., 44, pp. 3051–3068. [CrossRef]
Recht, R. F., and Ipson, T. W., 1963, “Ballistic Perforation Dynamics,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 30, pp. 384–390. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Sequence of the impact against a carbon specimen with an initial velocity of 700 m/s

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Fig. 2

Residual velocity versus impact velocity of the projectile for laminates C-16/0. Distance between first and second impact shown next to the test result.

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Fig. 3

Residual velocity versus impact velocity of the projectile for laminate H-18/21S. Distance between first and second impact shown close to the test result.

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Fig. 4

Residual velocity versus impact velocity of the projectile. Tests performed in laminate H-20/12S. Distance between first and second impact shown next to the test result.

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Fig. 5

Residual velocity versus impact velocity of the projectile. Tests performed in laminate H-22/15E. Distance between first and second impact shown next to the test result.

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Fig. 6

Recht–Ipson model for the different laminates. Thickness for each laminate is indicated in the legend.

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Fig. 7

Percentage of initial energy absorbed versus impact velocity

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Fig. 8

Energy absorbed by mm of thickness versus projectile residual speed

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Fig. 9

C-16/0 samples tested at different velocities. No visible delamination appears in any sample.

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Fig. 10

Samples H-20/12S tested at different velocities. No delamination appears in tests over 400 m/s. Delamination in front of one glass fiber ply appears in tests under 400 m/s.

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Fig. 11

Samples H-22/15E tested at different velocities. No delamination appears in tests over 400 m/s. Delamination in front of one glass fiber ply appears in tests under 400 m/s.

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Fig. 12

Samples H-18/21S tested at different velocities. No delamination appears in tests over 400 m/s, while delamination in front of one glass fiber ply appears in tests below 400 m/s.

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Fig. 13

Sample of C-16/0 after two consecutive impacts separated 6.3 mm

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