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Terminal Ballistics and Impact Physics

Different Scale Experiments of High Velocity Penetration With Concrete Targets

[+] Author and Article Information
Bin Wang

National Key Laboratory of Shock
Wave and Detonation Physics,
Institute of Fluid Physics,
China Academy of Engineering Physics,
Mianyang 621900, China

Manuscript received June 28, 2012; final manuscript received October 22, 2012; accepted manuscript posted January 9, 2013; published online April 19, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Bo S. G. Janzon.

J. Appl. Mech 80(3), 031802 (Apr 19, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: JAM-12-1269; doi: 10.1115/1.4023343 History: Received June 28, 2012; Revised October 22, 2012; Accepted January 09, 2013

In this study, two different scale projectile high velocity penetration experiments with concrete targets that had an average compressive strength of 35 MPa were conducted in order to find the velocity limits and nose erosion properties. We conducted the penetration experiments for the small-scale (48 mm diameter, 195 mm long, 2 kg) and the large-scale (144 mm diameter, 680 mm long, 50 kg) ogive-nose projectiles with the hard steel 4340 whose dynamic compression strength is 2.2 GPa. A 100-mm-diameter powder gun was used to launch the five tests of the 2 kg projectiles with striking velocities between 1100 m/s and 1600 m/s and a 320-mm-diameter Davis gun was used to launch the two tests of the 50 kg projectiles with striking velocities 1100 m/s and 1300 m/s. The experimental results showed that the nose material was missing, indicating an apparent eroding process when the striking velocity exceeded 1400 m/s, where the rigid body penetration made a transition into the elastic-plastic hydrodynamics regime and penetration depth begin to decrease when the striking velocity exceeds 1400 m/s. Furthermore, nose changes and mass loss due to nose erosion did not significantly affect the penetrating ability before rigid body penetration made a transition into the hydrodynamic regimes. In addition, nose erosion was analyzed with SEM surface microstructures, and the SEM image showed that the mass loss of projectiles was due to the shear cracks preceded by adiabatic shear bands.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Penetration parameters of 50 kg projectiles calculated with the penetration model: (a) penetration resistance stress σr0, (b) axis force versus penetrating velocity, (c) deceleration versus time, and (d) penetration depth versus penetrating velocity

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Fig. 2

Penetration resistance stress σr0 and quadratic function fitting residues

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Fig. 3

Geometry of the 2 kg projectiles

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Fig. 4

Post-test photographs of the 48-mm-diameter 2 kg projectiles

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Fig. 5

Penetration depth and mass loss versus striking velocity of the 2 kg projectiles: (a) penetration depth, and (b) mass loss

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Fig. 6

Post-test photographs of the 144-mm-diameter 50 kg projectiles

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Fig. 7

Mass erosion of the 2 kg projectiles

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Fig. 8

500X SEM image of the 2 kg projectiles' shank: (a) 1300 m/s and (b) 1500 m/s

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Fig. 9

Striking velocity 1300 m/s: adiabatic shear band in (a) 100 X SEM image and (b) 500X SEM image

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