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Research Papers

Highly Nonlinear Solitary Waves for the Assessment of Dental Implant Mobility

[+] Author and Article Information
Bruk Berhanu

Research Undergraduate
Laboratory for NDE and SHM Studies
Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA, 15261
e-mail: bruk.berhanu@gmail.com

Piervincenzo Rizzo

Assistant Professor
Laboratory for NDE and SHM Studies
Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
942 Benedum Hall, 3700 O'Hara St.
Pittsburgh, PA, 15261
e-mail: pir3@pitt.edu

Mark Ochs

Associate Dean and Chair
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at
the School of Dental Medicine
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: mwo1@pitt.edu

See, for instance, Chap. 5 of Ref. [40].

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 19, 2011; final manuscript received May 17, 2012; accepted manuscript posted June 7, 2012; published online November 20, 2012. Assoc. Editor: John Lambros.

J. Appl. Mech 80(1), 011028 (Nov 20, 2012) (8 pages) Paper No: JAM-11-1484; doi: 10.1115/1.4006947 History: Received December 19, 2011; Revised May 17, 2012; Accepted June 07, 2012

In this paper we present a noninvasive technique based on the propagation of highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs) to monitor the stability of dental implants. HNSWs are nondispersive mechanical waves that can form and travel in highly nonlinear systems, such as one-dimensional chains of spherical particles. The technique is based on the hypothesis that the mobility of a dental implant affects certain characteristics of the HNSWs reflected at the interface between a crystal-based transducer and the implant. To validate the research hypothesis we performed two experiments: first we observed the hydration of commercial plaster to simulate at large the osseointegration process that occurs in the oral connective tissue once a dental-endosteal threaded implant is surgically inserted; then, we monitored the decalcification of treated bovine bones immersed in an acid bath to simulate the inverse of the osseointegration process. In both series, we found a good correlation between certain characteristics of the HNSWs and the stiffness of the material under testing.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

General scheme of implant and tooth assessment by means of highly nonlinear solitary waves

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Fig. 2

(a) Photo of the actuator used to generate and detect HNSWs. (b) Actuator's design. Dimensions expressed in mm. The figure is reproduced from Ref. [38].

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Fig. 3

Plaster test. Photo of the sample. Note that the clearer surface around the screw is joint compound that bled out the bore after inserting the screw.

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Fig. 4

Plaster test. (a) Solitary waves measured from both instrumented beads at the baseline, i.e., curing time = 0; (b) solitary waves measured from both instrumented beads at curing time = 400 min.

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Fig. 5

Plaster test. (a) Normalized amplitude of the incident impulse measured by the top particle. (b) Normalized amplitude of the incident impulse measured by the bottom particle. (c) Normalized amplitude of the primary reflected wave measured by the top particle (the empty squares represent the data from the bottom sensor. The solid diamonds represent the data from the top sensor). (d) Normalized amplitude of the secondary reflected wave measured by the top particle.

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Fig. 6

Plaster test. (a) Normalized time of flight of the TOF as measured by the top sensor. (b) Wave speed of the incident pulse (empty circles) and of the PSW (filled diamonds). (c) Speed ratio PSW over incident pulse.

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Fig. 7

Diagram of the bone specimen

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Fig. 8

Front and top view of the experimental setup

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Fig. 9

Bone test. Solitary waves measured from the top instrumented bead at the baseline and after 8 h.

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Fig. 10

Bone test. (a) Normalized amplitude of the incident impulse measured by the top particle. (b) Normalized amplitude of the primary reflected wave measured by the top particle. (c) Normalized TOF measured by the top particle.

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Fig. 11

Bone test. Values of the normalized amplitude of the reflected solitary wave (dots) superimposed to the calcium content of the sample (continuous line).

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