In this paper, a solution to the quasi-static adhesive contact problem between a rigid cylinder and a transversely isotropic substrate is extended to the most general case by taking adhesion hysteresis into account. An analytical solution to the contact stress is obtained by solving the integral equations established on the basis of the Green's function for the two-dimensional transversely isotropic half-space problem. By using equilibrium conditions and Griffith's criterion, the adhesion force and resistant moment to rolling are determined as functions of contact geometries and material properties of the contacting solids. Detailed discussions on the adhesion force and resistant moment are presented for some specific cases, revealing adhesion behaviors that have not been predicted by previous models. As the most generalized solution to the discussed problem, our results would have extensive applications in predicting the adhesion behavior between solids undergoing sophisticated mechanical loadings.