Research Articles

On the Shrinkage and Stiffening of a Cellulose Sponge Upon Drying

[+] Author and Article Information
Justine Rey

Undergraduate Student
e-mail: justinerey.1@gmail.com

Matthieu Vandamme

Assistant Professor
e-mail: matthieu.vandamme@enpc.fr
Laboratoire Navier (École des Ponts ParisTech/IFSTTAR/CNRS),
École des Ponts ParisTech,
Université Paris-Est,
77420 Champs-sur-Marne, France

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 24, 2010; final manuscript received April 11, 2012; accepted manuscript posted October 25, 2012; published online February 6, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Younane Abousleiman.

J. Appl. Mech 80(2), 020908 (Feb 06, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: JAM-10-1464; doi: 10.1115/1.4007906 History: Received December 24, 2010; Revised April 11, 2012

Everyone can observe the peculiar effect of water on a sponge: upon drying, a sponge shrinks and stiffens; it swells and softens upon wetting. In this work, we aim to explain and model this behavior by using the Biot–Coussy poromechanical framework. We measure the volume and the bulk modulus of sponges at different water contents. Upon drying, the volume of the sponge decreases by more than half and its bulk modulus increases by almost two orders of magnitude. We develop a partially saturated microporomechanical model of the sponge undergoing finite transformations. The model compares well with the experimental data. We show that about half of the stiffening of the sponge upon drying is due to geometrical nonlinearities induced by a closing of the pores under the action of capillary pressure. The other half of the stiffening can be explained by the nonlinear elastic properties of the cellulose material itself.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Volume V of the sponge versus its mass M. Different symbols represent different sponges.

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Fig. 2

Bulk modulus K of the sponge versus its mass M. Different symbols represent different sponges.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Bulk modulus K of the sponge versus its volume V. Different symbols represent different sponges.

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Fig. 4

Two-scale porosity model for a sponge

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Fig. 5

Volume V of the sponge versus its dimensionless mass M/MS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Retention curve of the sponge: the dimensionless capillary pressure pc/GS versus the Lagrangian liquid saturation SL

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Bulk modulus K of the sponge versus its dimensionless mass M/MS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Material stiffening of the sponge. The material stiffening coefficient is defined as GS(pc)/GS(pc = 0).




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