Research Articles

Modeling Hydroionic Transport in Cement-Based Porous Materials Under Drying-Wetting Actions

[+] Author and Article Information
Kefei Li

e-mail: likefei@tsinghua.edu.cn

Chunqiu Li

Research Assistant
e-mail: lcq@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn
Department of Civil Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, PRC

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 4, 2011; final manuscript received April 6, 2012; accepted manuscript posted October 25, 2012; published online February 4, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Younane Abousleiman.

J. Appl. Mech 80(2), 020904 (Feb 04, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: JAM-11-1269; doi: 10.1115/1.4007907 History: Received August 04, 2011; Revised April 06, 2012

This paper investigates the hydroionic transport processes at the near surface of cement-based porous materials under external drying-wetting (D-W) actions. A basic multiphase model is retained and reviewed critically for moisture transport under D-W actions. The multiphase model fails to account for the substantial difference between moisture diffusivities during drying and wetting. The multiphase model is adapted for moisture transport under D-W actions through the respective mechanisms of moisture transport during drying and wetting. Together with the associated ionic transport, a global hydroionic model is established and the corresponding numerical scheme is developed to solve the near surface transport problem. Then, systematic experiments are performed on two concretes with high and low porosities for transport properties and hydroionic transport under D-W actions with pure water and salt solution. Experimental data validate the global model, while some fundamental aspects of hydroionic modeling are discussed.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hobbs, D. W., Matthews, J. D., and Marsh, B. K., 1998, Minimum Requirements of Durable Concrete: Carbonation- and Chloride-Induced Corrosion, Freeze-Thaw Attack and Chemical Attack, British Cement Association, Crowthorne, UK.
DuraCrete, 1998, “Probabilistic Performance Based Durability Design of Concrete Structures: Modelling of Degradation,” DuraCrete Project Document No. BE95-1347/R4-5.
Nilsson, L. O., Poulsen, E., Sandberg, P., Sorensen, H. E., and Klinghoffer, O., 1996, “Chloride Penetration Into Concrete, State-of-Art, Transport Process, Corrosion Initiation, Test Method and Prediction Methods,” HETEK Report No. 53.
Coussy, O., 2006, “Deformation and Stress From In-Pore Drying-Induced Crystallization of Salt,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 54(8), pp. 1517–1547. [CrossRef]
AFGC, 2007, Concrete Design for a Given Structure Service Life-Durability Indicators, Association Française de Génie Civil, Paris.
Li, K. F., Chen, Z. Y., and Lian, H. Z., 2008, “Concepts and Requirements for Durability Design of Concrete Structures: An Extensive Review of CCES01,” Mater. Struct., 41, pp. 717–731. [CrossRef]
Cerny, R., and Rovnanikova, P., 2002, Transport Process in Concrete, Taylor & Francis, London.
Cunningham, M. J., 1992, “Effective Penetration Depth and Effective Resistance in Moisture Transfer,” Build. Environ., 27(3), pp. 379–386. [CrossRef]
Meijers, S. J. H., Bijen, J. M. J. M., De Borst, R., and Fraaij, A. L. A., 2005, “Computational Results of a Model for Chloride Ingress in Concrete Including Convection, Drying-Wetting Cycles and Carbonation,” Mater. Struct., 38(276), pp. 145–154. [CrossRef]
Janssen, H., Blocken, B., and Carmeliet, J., 2007, “Conservative Modelling of the Moisture and Heat Transfer in Building Components Under Atmospheric Excitation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(5-6), pp. 1128–1140. [CrossRef]
Martys, N. S., and Ferraris, C.F., 1997, “Capillary Transport in Mortars and Concrete,” Cem. Concr. Res., 27(5), pp. 747–760. [CrossRef]
Mainguy, M., Coussy, O., and Baroghel-Bouny, V., 2001, “The Role of Air Pressure in the Drying of Weakly Permeable Materials,” J. Eng. Mech., 127(6), pp. 582–592. [CrossRef]
Thiery, M., Baroghel-Bouny, V., Bourneton, N., Villain, G., and Stefani, C., 2007, “Modélisation du Séchage des Bétons: Analyse des Différents Modes de Transfert Hydrique (Modeling of Drying of Concrete: Analysis of Different Moisture Transport Modes),” Rev. Eur. Génie Civil, 11(5), pp. 541–578 (in French).
Philip, J. R., and Vries, D. A., 1957, “Moisture Movement in Porous Materials Under Temperature Gradients,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 38(2), pp. 222–232.
Millington, R. J., 1959, “Gas Diffusion in Porous Media,” Science, 130, pp. 100–102. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Milly, P. C. D., 1980, “The Coupled Transport of Water and Heat in a Vertical Soil Column Under Atmospheric Excitation,” MS thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston.
Sercombe, J., Vidal, R., Gallé, C., and Adenot, F., 2007, “Experimental Study of Gas Diffusion in Cement Paste,” Cem. Concr. Res., 37(4), pp. 579–588. [CrossRef]
Van Genuchten, M. T., 1980, “A Closed-Form Equation for Predicting the Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 44(5), pp. 892–898. [CrossRef]
Dullien, F. A. L., 1992, Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Structure, Academic, San Diego, CA.
Espinosa, R. M., and Franke, L., 2006, “Ink Bottle Pore-Method: Prediction of Hygroscopic Water Content in Hardened Cement Paste at Variable Climatic Conditions,” Cem. Concr. Res., 36(10), pp. 1954–1968. [CrossRef]
Leech, C., Lockington, D., and Dux, P., 2003, “Unsaturated Diffusivity Functions for Concrete Derived From NMR Images,” Mater. Struct., 36(6), pp. 413–418. [CrossRef]
Wong, S. F., Wee, T. H., Swaddiwudhipong, S., and Lee, S. L., 2001, “Study of Water Movement in Concrete,” Mag. Concrete Res., 53(3), pp. 205–220. [CrossRef]
Perrin, B., Baroghel-Bouny, V., and Chemloul, L., 1998, “Méthodes de Détermination de la Diffusivité Hydrique de Pates de Ciments Durcies (Determination Method of the Moisture Diffusivity of Hardened Cement Pastes),” Mater. Struct., 31(208), pp. 235–241 (in French). [CrossRef]
Baroghel-Bouny, V., Perrin, B., and Chemloul, L., 1997, “Détermination Expérimentale des Propriétés Hydriques des Pates de Ciment Durcies—Mise en Evidence des Phénomenes d'Hystérésis (Experimental Determination of Moisture Properties of Hardened Cement Pastes, Showing Hysteresis Effects),” Mater. Struct., 30(200), pp. 340–348 (in French). [CrossRef]
Baroghel-Bouny, V., 2007, “Water Vapour Sorption Experiments on Hardened Cementitious Materials. Part II: Essential Tool for Assessment of Transport Properties and for Durability Prediction,” Cem. Concr. Res., 37(3), pp. 438–454. [CrossRef]
Fisher, L. R., and Lark, P. D., 1979, “An Experimental Study of the Washburn Equation for Liquid Flow in Very Fine Capillaries,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 69(3), pp. 486–492. [CrossRef]
Hall, C., 1989, “Water Sorptivity of Mortars and Concretes: A Review,” Mag. Concrete Res., 41(147), pp. 51–61. [CrossRef]
Lockington, D., Parlange, J., and Dux, P., 1999, “Sorptivity and the Estimation of Water Penetration Into Unsaturated Concrete,” Mater. Struct., 32(5), pp. 342–347. [CrossRef]
De Vera, G., Climent, M. A., Viqueira, E., Anton, C., and Andrade, C., 2007, “A Test Method for Measuring Chloride Diffusion Coefficients Through Partially Saturated Concrete. Part II: The Instantaneous Plane Source Diffusion Case With Chloride Binding Consideration,” Cem. Concr. Res., 37(5), pp. 714–724. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, T. Q., 2007, “Modélisations Physico-Chimiques de la Pénétration des Ions Chlorures dans les Matériaux Cimentaires (Physical-Chemical Modeling of Chloride Ion Penetration in Cement-Based Materials), Ph.D. thesis, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris (in French).
Tang, L. P., and Nillson, L. O., 1993, “Chloride Binding Capacity and Binding Isotherm of OPC Pastes and Mortars,” Cem. Concr. Res., 23(2), pp. 247–253. [CrossRef]
Cerny, R., Pavlik, Z., and Rovnanikova, P., 2004, “Experimental Analysis of Coupled Water and Chloride Transport in Cement Mortar,” Cement Concrete Comp., 26(6), pp. 705–715. [CrossRef]
Lin, H., and Lee, L., 2005, “Estimations of Activity Coefficients of Constituent Ions in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions With the Two-Ionic-Parameter Approach,” Fluid Phase Equilib., 237(1-2), pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Lide, D. R., 2003, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th ed., CRC, Boca Raton.
Wang, H., and Lacroix, M., 1997, “Optimal Weighting in the Finite Difference Solution of the Convection Dispersion Equation,” J. Hydrol., 200(1-4), pp. 228–242. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Regressed moisture diffusivities (up) and deduced diffusivities from the hysteresis effect (down) (“D-”, “W-” for drying and wetting)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Moisture loss during drying (up) and gained mass during wetting (down)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sorption isotherm (up) and characteristic curves (down) for CO and CH specimens

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Measured/predicted chloride profiles (up) and adapted moisture isotherm (down) for CO specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of drying-wetting experiment and installation of humidity probes and electrodes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Recorded electrical conductivity/humidity (up) and model-predicted humidity (down)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Evolution of saturation degree (up) and chloride profile (down) for CO specimen with drying period of 6.5 days and wetting period of 0.5 days




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In