Research Papers

Effectiveness of Explosive Reactive Armor

[+] Author and Article Information
Meir Mayseless

Faculty of Engineering Sciences,  Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84105, Israelmeir.mays@gmail.com

J. Appl. Mech 78(5), 051006 (Jul 27, 2011) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004398 History: Received November 17, 2010; Revised May 23, 2011; Published July 27, 2011; Online July 27, 2011

Explosive reactive armor (ERA) is a type of add-on armor that usually consists of tiles made of two metal plates with an explosive layer in between. The ERA is placed at a certain distance from the main armor to enhance its performance. ERA design is optimized based on the required effectiveness of the tiles. Various methods of defining ERA effectiveness are described. The effectiveness parameters of the mass-flux model and its derivatives, the effect of material properties, the escape length of the jet tip precursor, the explosive layer thickness, and the edge effects are analyzed, and correlations between them are presented. Analysis results are compared with available experimental data and a very good correlation is found.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Increase in armor-piercing capability of weapons over the years (left) and armor thickness versus vehicle weight (right) [1]

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Figure 2

Actual and effective thickness of inclined armor plate versus the angle of inclination [1]

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Figure 3

Schematic view of a reactive cassette just before being hit by a jet

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Figure 4

X-ray image of a jet interacting with an ERA cassette

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Figure 5

Schematic description of the thickness parameters

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Figure 6

DMEF versus TMEF for WRES=0.2·W0 (dotted line) and WRES=0.1·W0 (solid line), together with the mass effectiveness factor (solid dot) and the space effectiveness factor (square point) from the example presented above

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Figure 7

Space effectiveness factors versus mass effectiveness factors. ηDS=f(ηDM) (Eq. 9, dotted line) and ηTS=f(ηTM) (Eq. 10, solid line), together with the calculated values (solid dot and square point) from the example presented above

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Figure 8

Plate effectiveness (Eq. 13) as a function of the explosive thickness, for a 3/C/3 cassette

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Figure 9

Held’s experimental results (Diamonds point are for Dottikon foils and Circles points are for SNPE Formax) [8] compared with the global effectiveness model, Eq. 15 (line)

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Figure 10

Total mass effectiveness (Eq. 16) versus explosive thickness (C) - experimental results (Diamonds points are for Dottikon foils and Circles points are for SNPE Formax) [8] compared with calculated results (line)

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Figure 11

Two X-ray images of a 60 deg point-initiated jet tip, at short stand-off distance (top) [9], and numerical simulation results (bottom) of two jets emerging from of peripherally (upper) and point (lower) initiated charge, both at the same time after initiation [10]

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Figure 12

X-ray image of the precursor after interacting with a 45 deg cassette

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Figure 13

Numerical simulation of an oblique penetration of a plate by a jet

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Figure 14

X-ray image of the large holes created in the plates of a cassette by a jet emanating from a point-initiated charge

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Figure 15

Schematic description of the velocities of the jet after penetrating (top) and after re-interacting with the cassette (bottom)

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Figure 16

Opening hole effectiveness in a symmetric cassette

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Figure 17

X-ray image of a rod interacting with a cassette, showing the strip that is cut out of the B-plate

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Figure 18

Effectiveness of aluminum front plates (left), and steel front plates (right). Solid line - TMEF, dotted line - DMEF, and dashed line - TSEF.

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Figure 19

Schematic view of an ERA cassette interacting with a shaped-charge jet

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Figure 20

Length effectiveness of the two plates versus explosive thickness

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Figure 21

X-ray image of a disturbed jet after interacting with a 3 mm B-plate and a 3 mm explosive attached to it [2]

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Figure 22

X-ray image of a disturbed jet tip after interacting with the detonated explosive products




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